Space systems - Glossary of terms

This document controls the definition of all common terms used in the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS) Standards System. Terms specific to a particular ECSS Standard are defined in that standard.
This document does not include the definition of terms used with their common meaning. In this case, the definition from the Oxford English Dictionary applies.

Raumfahrttechnik - Glossar

Système spatial - Glossaire

Vesoljski sistemi - Slovar

Ta dokument nadzoruje definicijo vseh skupnih izrazov, ki se uporabljajo v sistemu evropskega sodelovanja za standardizacijo na področju vesolja (ECSS). Izrazi, specifični za posamezen standard ECSS, so opredeljeni v tem standardu. Ta dokument ne vključuje definicije izrazov, ki se uporabljajo z njihovim splošnim pomenom. V tem primeru se uporablja definicija iz angleškega slovarja Oxford English Dictionary.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
27-Jan-2015
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
9093 - Decision to confirm - Review Enquiry
Completion Date
13-Jan-2021

RELATIONS

Effective Date
04-Feb-2015

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 16601-00-01:2015
01-april-2015
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 13701:2002
Vesoljski sistemi - Slovar
Space systems - Glossary of terms
Raumfahrttechnik - Glossar
Système spatiale - Glossaire
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 16601-00-01:2015
ICS:
01.040.49 Letalska in vesoljska tehnika Aircraft and space vehicle
(Slovarji) engineering (Vocabularies)
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
SIST EN 16601-00-01:2015 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 16601-00-01:2015
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SIST EN 16601-00-01:2015
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 16601-00-01
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
January 2015
ICS 49.140; 01.040.49 Supersedes EN 13701:2001
English version
Space systems - Glossary of terms
Syst?e spatiale - Glossaire Raumfahrttechnik - Glossar
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 1 March 2014.

CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving

this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning

such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN and CENELEC

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre

has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece,

Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia,

Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2015 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 16601-00-01:2015 E

worldwide for CEN national Members and for CENELEC
Members.
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Table of contents

Foreword .................................................................................................................... 3

1 Scope ....................................................................................................................... 4

2 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ............................................................ 5

2.1 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................... 5

2.2 Space system breakdown ......................................................................................... 6

2.2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................. 6

2.2.2 Definitions for generic terms ........................................................................ 8

2.2.3 Definitions for space system ....................................................................... 9

2.2.4 Definitions for space segment ..................................................................... 9

2.2.5 Definitions for ground segment ................................................................. 10

2.2.6 Definitions for launch segment .................................................................. 10

2.2.7 Definitions for support segment ................................................................. 11

2.3 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................. 12

2.4 Abbreviated terms................................................................................................... 42

Annex A Traceability with respect to ECSS-P-001B ............................................. 46

Annex B Segment trees .......................................................................................... 54

B.1 Space segment ....................................................................................................... 55

B.2 Ground segment ..................................................................................................... 56

B.3 Launch segment ..................................................................................................... 57

B.4 Support segment .................................................................................................... 58

Annex C Launch segment-specific terms ............................................................. 59

Bibliography ............................................................................................................. 62

Figures

Figure 2-1: Space system breakdown .................................................................................... 7

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Foreword
This document (EN 16601-00-01:2015) has been prepared by Technical
Committee CEN/CLC/TC 5 “Space”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.
This standard (EN 16601-00-01:2015) originates from ECSS-S-ST-00-01C.
This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either

by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by July 2015,

and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by July 2015.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document
may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held
responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the
European Commission and the European Free Trade Association.
This document supersedes EN 13701-2001.
This document has been developed to cover specifically space systems and has
therefore precedence over any EN covering the same scope but with a wider
domain of applicability (e.g. : aerospace).
According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards
organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European
Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United
Kingdom.
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Scope
This document controls the definition of all common terms used in the
European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS) Standards System.
Terms specific to a particular ECSS Standard are defined in that standard.
This document does not include the definition of terms used with their common
meaning. In this case, the definition from the Oxford English Dictionary
applies.
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Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
2.1 Terms and definitions
When using the ECSS standards, the following is the order of precedence of
documents as the source of definition of terms:
1. the standard in question
2. the present Glossary of terms
3. the Oxford English dictionary.
A term used within a definition, which is defined elsewhere in this document is
shown in boldface. A boldface term may be replaced within the definition by its
own definition.
A concept that has a special meaning in a particular context is indicated by
designating the context in angle brackets, < >, before the definition.
A document reference shown after a definition in square brackets, [ ], indicates
that this definition is reproduced from the referenced document.
NOTE For example:
2.3.17 auditee
organization being audited
[ISO 9000:2005]
All terms and their definitions appear in alphabetic order in clause 2.3 of this
Glossary. However, wherever it is considered important to present together a

set of terms that are interrelated (i.e. constitute a particular “view”), these terms

and their definitions are repeated in standalone sections of this Glossary or in
Annexes. For example, clause 2.2 collects together all terms that relate to the
breakdown of the overall Space System.
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2.2 Space system breakdown
2.2.1 Introduction
ECSS-S-ST-00C defines the highest-level system within a space project – i.e. the
one at the mission-level - as the “Space System”. The purpose of the present

clause is to identify the breakdown of a typical space system and to define a set of

standard terms for the constituent levels within the breakdown (see Figure 2-1).
In so doing, it is acknowledged that each distinct domain (i.e. space, ground
and launcher) already has its own domain-specific terminology for its internal
entities e.g. elements and systems. In the case of the launcher domain, this
terminology has been formally defined and agreed at programme-level. It is not
the intention to define new terms in this Glossary to supersede those already in

universal use. Rather, the intention is to define a standard set of terms for the

levels of the space system breakdown and then to show where the domain-

specific entities fit into these levels. To this end, Annex B contains examples of

entities from the three principal space system segments, mapped to the space
system breakdown levels defined below.
The terms are defined in clause 2.2.2 to 2.2.7 and are listed not in alphabetic
order but according to the hierarchy defined in Figure 2-1: Space system
breakdown below.
• 2.2.2 defines generic terms
• 2.2.3 defines the space system
• 2.2.4 defines terms relating to the space segment
• 2.2.5 defines terms relating to the ground segment
• 2.2.6 defines terms relating to the launch segment
• 2.2.7 defines terms relating to the support segment
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Figure 2-1: Space system breakdown
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2.2.2 Definitions for generic terms
system
set of interrelated or interacting functions constituted to achieve a specified
objective
segment
set of elements or combination of systems that fulfils a major, self-contained,
subset of the space mission objectives
Examples are space segment, ground segment, launch segment and support
segment.
element
combination of integrated equipment, components and parts
NOTE An element fulfils a major, self-contained, subset of
a segment's objectives.
subsystem
part of a system fulfilling one or more of its functions
equipment
integrated set of parts and components
NOTE 1 An equipment accomplishes a specific function.
NOTE 2 An equipment is self-contained and classified as
such for the purposes of separate manufacture,
procurement, drawings, specification, storage,
issue, maintenance or use.
NOTE 3 The term "unit" is synonymous with the term
"equipment"
component
set of materials, assembled according to defined and controlled processes,
which cannot be disassembled without destroying its capability and which
performs a simple function that can be evaluated against expected
performance requirements
NOTE 1 The term "part" is synonymous.
NOTE 2 The term "part" is preferred when referring to
purely mechanical devices.
NOTE 3 The term "component" is preferred for EEE
devices.
part
see "component"
material
raw, semi–finished or finished substance (gaseous, liquid, solid) of given
characteristics from which processing into a component or part is undertaken
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2.2.3 Definitions for space system
space system
system that contains at least a space, a ground or a launch segment
NOTE Generally a space system is composed of all three
segments and is supported by a support segment.
2.2.4 Definitions for space segment
space segment
part of a space system, placed in space, to fulfil the space mission objectives
space segment system
system within a space segment
NOTE Examples are given in Annex B.1.
space segment element
element within a space segment
NOTE 1 A space segment element can be composed of
several space segment elements, e.g. a spacecraft is
composed of instruments, a payload module and a
service module.
NOTE 2 Examples are given in Annex B.1.
stand-alone space segment element
space segment element that performs its mission autonomously
NOTE For example: satellite, rover, lander.
embedded space segment element
space segment element that performs its mission as part of another space
segment element
NOTE For example: platform, module, instrument,
payload.
space segment subsystem
subsystem within a space segment
NOTE Examples are given in Annex B.1.
space segment equipment
equipment within a space segment
NOTE Examples are given in Annex B.1.
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2.2.5 Definitions for ground segment
ground segment
part of a space system, located on ground, which monitors and controls space
segment element(s)
NOTE A ground segment is composed of one or more
ground segment elements.
ground segment system
system within a ground segment
NOTE Examples are given in Annex B.2.
ground segment element
element within a ground segment
NOTE 1 A ground segment element can be composed of
several ground segment elements, e.g. a ground
station network is a ground segment element that
can be composed of a set of ground stations and a
communication network.
NOTE 2 Examples are given in Annex B.2.
ground segment subsystem
subsystem within a ground segment
NOTE Examples are given in Annex B.2.
ground segment equipment
equipment within a ground segment
NOTE Examples are given in Annex B.2.
2.2.6 Definitions for launch segment
launch segment
part of a space system which is used to transport space segment element(s)
into space
NOTE 1 A launch segment is composed of one or more
launch segment elements.
NOTE 2 A launch segment is composed of the integrated
launcher and the facilities needed for
manufacturing, testing and delivering launcher
elements.
launch segment system
system within a launch segment
NOTE Examples are given in Annex B.3
launch segment element
element within a launch segment
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NOTE 1 A launch segment element can be composed of
several launch segment elements, e.g. a launcher is
a launch segment element that is composed of
several launch segment elements, such as stage,
engine and upper part.
NOTE 2 Examples are given in Annex B.3.
launch segment subsystem
subsystem within a launch segment
NOTE Examples are given in Annex B.3.
launch segment equipment
equipment within a launch segment
NOTE Examples are given in Annex B.3.
2.2.7 Definitions for support segment
support segment
generic infrastructure and services used to support the development and
operation of space system elements
NOTE 1 Examples are ground stations and associated
networks, orbit computing facilities, test centres,
astronaut centre, launch facilities (e.g. Plestek,
Baikonour, Guiana Space Centre).
NOTE 2 Items can be part of other segments during their
development and later become part of the support
segment when used (e.g. a tracking network).
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2.3 Terms and definitions
2.3.1 acceptance
act by which the customer agrees that the product is designed and
produced according to its specifications and the agreed deviations and
waivers, and it is free of defects when delivered by the supplier
2.3.2 acceptance
that part of the verification process which demonstrates that the
product meets specified acceptance margins
2.3.3 accident

undesired event arising from operation of any project-specific item that results in

a. human death or injury,
b. loss of, or damage to, project hardware, software or facilities that can
then affect the accomplishment of the mission,
c. loss of, or damage to, public or private property, or
d. detrimental effects on the environment.
NOTE Accident and mishap are synonymous.
2.3.4 active redundancy
redundancy where all entities are operating and the system can continue to
operate without downtime or defects despite the loss of one or more entities
2.3.5 actuator
device that transforms an input signal into motion
2.3.6 alert
formal notification to users, informing them of failures or nonconformance of
items, already released for use or not, which could also be present on other
items already delivered [e.g. items with identical design concept, materials,
components or processes]
NOTE An alert can also be raised when a deficiency in the
specified requirements, which can affect the fitness
for purpose in the defined application, has been
identified.
2.3.7 allowable load
maximum load that can be permitted in a structural part for a given operating
environment to prevent rupture, collapse, detrimental deformation or
unacceptable crack growth
NOTE Adapted from ISO 14623:2003.
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2.3.8 analysis

verification method utilizing techniques and tools to confirm that

verification requirements have been satisfied
NOTE 1 Examples of techniques and tools are mathematical
models, compilation similarity assessments and
validation of records.
NOTE 2 Adapted from ISO 10795:2011.
2.3.9 anomaly
any deviation from the expected situation
NOTE An anomaly justifies an investigation that might
lead to the discovery of a nonconformance or a
defect.
2.3.10 applicable document
document that contains provisions which, through reference in the source
document, constitute additional provisions of the source document
NOTE Adapted from ISO 10795:2011.
2.3.11 approval
formal agreement by a designated management official to use or apply an item
or proceed with a proposed course of action
NOTE 1 Approvals must be documented.
NOTE 2 Approval implies that the approving authority has
verified that the item conforms to its requirements.
2.3.12 assembly
physically combining parts, components, equipment or segment
elements to form a larger entity
2.3.13 assurance
planned and systematic activities implemented, and demonstrated as needed,
to provide adequate confidence that an entity fulfils its requirements
2.3.14 audit
systematic, independent and documented process for obtaining audit evidence

and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which audit criteria are

fulfilled
NOTE 1 Internal audits, sometimes called first-party audits,
are conducted by, or on behalf of, the organization
itself for management review and other internal
purposes, and may form the basis for an
organization’s declaration of conformity. In many
cases, particularly in smaller organizations,
independence can be demonstrated by the freedom
from responsibility for the activity being audited.
NOTE 2 External audits include those generally termed
second- and third-party audits. Second-party
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audits are conducted by parties having an interest
in the organization, such as customers, or by other
persons on their behalf. Third-party audits are
conducted by external, independent auditing
organizations, such as those providing
certification/registration of conformity to ISO 9001
or ISO 14001.
NOTE 3 When quality and environmental management
systems are audited together, this is termed
“combined audit”.
NOTE 4 When two or more auditing organizations
cooperate to audit a single auditee jointly, this is
termed “joint audit”.
[ISO 9000:2005]
2.3.15 audit criteria
set of policies, procedures or requirements
NOTE Audit criteria are used as a reference against which
audit evidence is compared.
[ISO 9000:2005]
2.3.16 audit evidence
records, statements of fact or other information which are relevant to the audit
criteria and verifiable
NOTE Audit evidence can be qualitative or quantitative.
[ISO 9000:2005]
2.3.17 auditee
organization being audited
[ISO 9000:2005]
2.3.18 auditor
person with the demonstrated personal attributes and competence to conduct
an audit
NOTE Adapted from ISO 9000:2005.
2.3.19 availability
ability of an item to be in a state to perform a required function under given

conditions at a given instant of time or over a given time interval, assuming that

the required external resources are provided
NOTE 1 This ability depends on the combined aspects of
the reliability performance, the maintainability
performance and the maintenance support
performance.
NOTE 2 Required external resources, other than
maintenance resources do not affect the
availability performance of the item.
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NOTE 3 When referring to the measure for availability, the
preferred term is “instantaneous availability”.
NOTE 4 Adapted from IEC Multilingual Dictionary: 2001
edition.
2.3.20 backward contamination

contamination of the terrestrial biosphere by extra-terrestrial life forms in the

course of spaceflight missions
2.3.21 bakeout
activity of increasing the temperature of hardware to accelerate its outgassing
rates with the intent of reducing the content of molecular contaminants within
the hardware
NOTE Bakeout is usually performed in a vacuum
environment, but may be done in a controlled
atmosphere.
2.3.22 baseline

set of information which describes exhaustively a situation at a given instant of

time or over a given time interval
NOTE A baseline is generally used as a reference for
comparison with and analysis of subsequent
evolutions of the information.
2.3.23 batch
quantity produced at one operation
2.3.24 black box
representation of an item whereby knowledge of its internal composition is not
available to the user, only its function and interface characteristics are known
2.3.25 business agreement
legally binding agreement, for the supply of goods or services, between two or
more actors in the customer–supplier chain
NOTE Business agreements are recorded in a variety of
forms, such as:
• Contracts,
• Memoranda of understanding,
• Inter-governmental agreements,
• Inter-agency agreements,
• Partnerships,
• Bartering agreements, and
• Purchase orders.
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2.3.26 calibration

all the operations for the purpose of determining the values of the errors and, if

necessary, other metrological properties of a measuring instrument
NOTE The metrological use of the term “calibration” is
often extended to include operations such as
adjustments, scale graduation, etc. This use is
deprecated.
[IEC Multilingual Dictionary: 2001 edition]
2.3.27 capability

ability of an organization, system or process to realize a product that will fulfil

the requirements for that product
NOTE Process capability terms in the field of statistics are
defined in ISO 3534-2.
[ISO 9000:2005]
2.3.28 catastrophic

resulting in loss of life, life-threatening, permanently disabling injury

or occupational illness, loss of system, loss of an interfacing manned flight

system, loss of launch site facilities or severe detrimental environmental effects

2.3.29 certification
procedure by which a party gives formal assurance that a person or an
organization acts, or a product is, in compliance with specified requirements
NOTE Certification can be carried out by a first, second or
third party.
2.3.30 clean area
area under contamination control
NOTE Examples of clean areas are cleanrooms,
integration tent, gloves box.
2.3.31 cleanliness
level of particulate or molecular contamination
2.3.32 cleanroom
clean area controlled according to specified levels
NOTE Specified levels are humidity, temperature,
particulates number versus size and volume and
chemical contamination.
2.3.33 cold redundancy
redundancy where one entity is operating and the others are powered off
2.3.34 commissioning
verification and validation activities conducted after the launch and before the
entry into operational service either on the space segment elements only or on
the overall system (including the ground segment elements)
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2.3.35 common cause failure
failure of multiple items occurring from a single cause that is common to all of
them
2.3.36 common mode failure
failure of multiple identical items that fail in the same mode
NOTE Common mode failures are a particular case of
common cause failures.
2.3.37 component
set of materials, assembled according to defined and controlled processes,
which cannot be disassembled without destroying its capability and which
performs a simple function that can be evaluated against expected
performance requirements
NOTE 1 The term "part" is synonymous.
NOTE 2 The term "part" is preferred when referring to
purely mechanical devices.
NOTE 3 The term "component" is preferred for EEE
devices.
2.3.38 composite
building block of a launcher composed of one or several pre-integrated stages
and structural parts (fairing, payload adaptor, dual launch structure, etc.)
NOTE 1 Example-1: A5 Upper Composite includes the
cryogenic upper stage (ESC), the vehicle
equipment bay (VEB), fairing and payload
adaptor.
NOTE 2 Example-2: A5 Lower Composite includes two
solid booster stages (EAP) and the main cryogenic
stage (EPC).
2.3.39 configuration
interrelated functional and/or physical characteristics of a product defined in
configuration documents subject to configuration management
NOTE Adapted from ISO 10007:2003.
2.3.40 configuration baseline
approved status of requirements and design of a product at a project key

milestone that serves as a reference for activities throughout the life cycle of the

product
NOTE Adapted from ISO 10007:2003.
2.3.41 configuration control
coordinated activities for controlling modifications to a configuration baseline
NOTE Requests for deviation are also considered
modifications to a baseline.
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2.3.42 configuration document
document that defines the requirements for function, design, build,
production, and verification for a configuration item
NOTE For space standards, configuration documents can
include documents relating to operation and
disposal of the configuration item.
2.3.43 configuration identification
coordinated activities to establish rules for configuration item selection,
configuration baseline content definition, and product and document
identifiers definition
2.3.44 configuration item
aggregation of hardware, software, processed materials, services or any of its
discrete portions, that is designated for configuration management and treated
as a single entity in the configuration management process
NOTE A configuration item can contain other
configuration item(s).
2.3.45 configuration management
activity for establishing and maintaining consistent records of the performance
parameters of a product and its functional and physical attributes compared to
product design and operational requirements
NOTE 1 Configuration management is applied throughout
the entire life cycle of the product (i.e.
development, production, deployment, operation
and disposal).
NOTE 2 Adapted from ISO 10007:2003.
2.3.46 configuration status accounting
formalized recording and reporting of product characteristics and
configuration information, the status of applicable changes and the status of
their implementation
NOTE Adapted from ISO 10007:2003.
2.3.47 configuration verification
coordinated activities to determine the conformance of the configuration item
to its configuration document(s)
2.3.48 conformance
fulfilment of a requirement
NOTE The term “conformity” is synonymous.
2.3.49 conformity
see “conformance”
NOTE The term “conformance” is strongly recommended
for use in the ECSS system.
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2.3.50 contaminant
undesirable molecular or particulate matter
NOTE This includes microbiological matter.
2.3.51 contamination
introduction of contaminant to an item or to the environment of interest
2.3.52 contract
legally enforceable business agreement in which payment is p
...

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