This document specifies a reference method for the determination of milk fat purity using gas chromatographic analysis of triglycerides. The method utilizes the differences in triglyceride fingerprint of milk fat from the individual triglyceride fingerprints of other fats and oils to determine samples which are outside the range normally observed for milk fat. This is achieved by using the defined triglyceride formulae based on the normalized weighted sum of individual triglyceride peaks which are sensitive to the integrity of the milk[6][7]. The integrity of the milk fat can be determined by comparing the result of these formulae with those previously observed for a range of pure milk fat samples[12]. Both vegetable fats and animal fats such as beef tallow and lard can be detected.
The method is applicable to bulk milk, or products made thereof, irrespective of the variation in common feeding practices, breed or lactation conditions. In particular, the method is applicable to fat extracted from milk products purporting to contain pure milk fat with unchanged composition, such as butter, cream, milk and milk powder.
Because a false-positive result can occur, the method does not apply to milk fat related to these circumstances:
a) obtained from bovine milk other than cow's milk;
b) obtained from single cows;
c) obtained from cows whose diet contained a particularly high proportion of vegetable oils such as rapeseed, cotton or palm oil, etc.;
d) obtained from cows suffering from serious underfeeding (strong energy deficit);
e) obtained from colostrum;
f) subjected to technological treatment such as removal of cholesterol or fractionation;
g) obtained from skim milk, buttermilk or whey;
h) obtained from cheeses showing increased lipolysis;
i) extracted using the Gerber, Weibull?Berntrop or Schmid?Bondzynski?Ratzlaff methods, or that has been isolated using detergents (e.g. the Bureau of Dairy Industries method).
With the extraction methods specified in i), substantial quantities of partial glycerides or phospholipids can pass into the fat phase.
NOTE 1 In nature, butyric (n-butanoic) acid (C4) occurs exclusively in milk fat and enables quantitative estimations of low to moderate amounts of milk fat in vegetable and animal fats to be made. Due to the large variation of C4, for which the approximate content ranges from 3,1 % fat mass fraction to 3,8 % fat mass fraction, it is difficult to provide qualitative and quantitative information for foreign fat to pure milk fat ratios of up to 20 % mass fraction[11].
NOTE 2 In practice, quantitative results cannot be derived from the sterol content of vegetable fats, because they depend on production and processing conditions. Furthermore, the qualitative determination of foreign fat using sterols is ambiguous.
NOTE 3 Due to special feeding practices such as those related to c) and d), false-positive results have sometimes been reported for milk from certain Asian regions[15]. Moreover, grass-only diets such as mountain and, in particular, highland pasture feeding sometimes cause false-positive results, which can be substantiated by a content of conjugated linoleic acid (C18:2 c9t11) of ≥ 1,3 % fatty acid mass fraction[16][17]. Nevertheless, results conforming to the criteria of milk fat purity specified in this document are accepted, even if samples were undoubtedly produced under conditions reported in this note, including those described in h).
NOTE 4 In cases where a positive resu

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ISO 196660 | IDF 237:2018 specifies an acidobutyrometric method for determining the fat content of cream. The reference method remains the gravimetric method (by ammoniacal ether extraction) described in ISO 2450 | IDF 16. This method is applicable to cream having a fat content between 20 % and 50 % inclusive: - intended for manufacturing butter; - sweet, unmatured and non-inoculated; - raw or having undergone a heat treatment; - non-homogenized; - with or without preservatives (2-bromo-2-nitropropane, 1,3 diol or bronopol).

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ISO 12779/IDF 227:2011 specifies a method for the determination of the water content of lactose by Karl Fischer (KF) titration.

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ISO/TS 11869|IDF/RM 150:2012 specifies a potentiometric method for the determination of the titratable acidity of natural yoghurt, flavoured yoghurt, fruit yoghurt, drinking yoghurt, fresh cheese with or without fruit, buttermilk with or without fruit, and other fermented milk products.

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ISO 12779/IDF 227:2011 specifies a method for the determination of the water content of lactose by Karl Fischer (KF) titration.

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ISO 6731|IDF 21:2010 specifies the reference method for the determination of the total solids content of milk, cream and evaporated milk.

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ISO 5546|IDF 115:2010 specifies a reference method for the determination of the pH of all types of casein (acid caseins and rennet caseins) and of caseinates.

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This International Standard specifies the reference method for the determination of the fat content of milkbased infant food s. The method is applicable to liquid, concentrated and dried milk-based infant foods with no, or not more than a mass fract ion of 5 % (dry matter) of such added matter as starch, dextri n, vegetables, fruit, and meat. The method is not applicable t o products which do not dissolve completely in ammonia owing t o the presence of starch or dextrin at mass fractions of more than a few percent, or to the presence of hard lumps. The meth od is also not applicable to products which contain free fatty acids in significant quantities. The results obtained for the se products are too low.

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ISO 8381¦IDF 123:2008 specifies the reference method for the determination of the fat content of milk-based infant foods.
The method is applicable to liquid, concentrated and dried milk-based infant foods with no, or not more than a mass fraction of 5 % (dry matter) of such added matter as starch, dextrin, vegetables, fruit and meat.
The method is not applicable to products which do not dissolve completely in ammonia owing to the presence of starch or dextrin at mass fractions of more than a few percent, or to the presence of hard lumps. The method is also not applicable to products which contain free fatty acids in significant quantities. The results obtained for these products will be too low.

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ISO 2450|IDF 16:2008 specifies the reference method for the determination of the fat content of raw, processed and sour cream in which no appreciable separation or breakdown of fat, due to lipolysis, has occurred.
The method is not applicable to sour creams with starch or other thickening agents.

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ISO 2450|IDF 16:2008 specifies the reference method for the determination of the fat content of raw, processed and sour cream in which no appreciable separation or breakdown of fat, due to lipolysis, has occurred. The method is not applicable to sour creams with starch or other thickening agents.

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ISO 8381¦IDF 123:2008 specifies the reference method for the determination of the fat content of milk-based infant foods. The method is applicable to liquid, concentrated and dried milk-based infant foods with no, or not more than a mass fraction of 5 % (dry matter) of such added matter as starch, dextrin, vegetables, fruit and meat. The method is not applicable to products which do not dissolve completely in ammonia owing to the presence of starch or dextrin at mass fractions of more than a few percent, or to the presence of hard lumps. The method is also not applicable to products which contain free fatty acids in significant quantities. The results obtained for these products will be too low.

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ISO 5547│IDF 91:2008 specifies a reference method for the determination of the free acidity of caseins obtained by acid precipitation or lactic fermentation and of rennet caseins.

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ISO 5545│IDF 90:2008 specifies a reference method for the determination of the ash of caseins obtained by rennet precipitation and of caseinates, with the exception of ammonium caseinate.

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ISO 5544│IDF 89:2008 specifies a reference method for the determination of the "fixed ash" of caseins, as a percentage by mass, obtained by acid precipitation or lactic fermentation, of ammonium caseinates, of their mixtures with rennet casein and with caseinates, and of caseins of unknown type.

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ISO 5550|IDF 78:2006 specifies the reference method for the determination of the moisture content of all types of caseins and caseinates.

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ISO 13580|IDF 151:2005 specifies a reference method for the determination of the total solids content of plain, flavoured, sweetened and fruit yogurts.

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ISO 5548|IDF 106:2004 specifies a photometric method for the determination of the content of lactose and other soluble carbohydrates in caseins and caseinates containing less than 2,0 % of total soluble carbohydrates.

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ISO 5543|IDF 127:2004 specifies the reference method for the determination of the fat content of all types of caseins and caseinates.

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ISO 7889|IDF 117:2003 specifies a method for the enumeration of characteristic microorganisms in yogurt by means of the colony-count technique at 37 degrees Celsius. The method is applicable to yogurts in which both characteristic microorganisms (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) are present and viable.

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ISO 5739|IDF 107:2003 specifies a method for the determination of the contents of scorched particles and of extraneous matter in caseins and caseinates.

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ISO 17678|IDF 202:2010 specifies a reference method for the determination of milk fat purity using gas chromatographic analysis of triglycerides. Both vegetable fats and animal fats such as beef tallow and lard can be detected. By using defined triglyceride equations, the integrity of milk fat is determined.
Basically, the method applies to bulk milk, or products made thereof, irrespective of feeding, breed or lactation conditions. In particular, the method is applicable to fat extracted from milk products purporting to contain pure milk fat with unchanged composition, such as butter, cream, milk, and milk powder.
However, under the circumstances listed hereafter, a false positive result can be obtained. Hence, the method is not applicable to milk fat: a) obtained from bovine milk other than cow's milk; b) obtained from single cows; c) obtained from cows which received an exceptionally high feeding of pure vegetable oils such as rapeseed oil; d) obtained from colostrum; e) subjected to technological treatment such as removal of cholesterol or fractionation; f) obtained from skim milk or buttermilk; g) extracted by using the Gerber, Weibull–Berntrop or Schmid–Bondzynski–Ratzlaff methods, or that has been isolated using detergents (e.g. the Bureau of Dairy Industries method).
With the extraction methods specified in g), substantial quantities of partial glycerides or phospholipids can pass into the fat phase. Consequently, the scope of ISO 17678|IDF 202:2010 excludes certain products and particularly cheese, whose ripening process can also affect the fat composition to such a degree that a false positive result is obtained.

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Migrated from Progress Sheet (TC Comment) (2000-07-10): Shall be // at formal vote level (glg-98-02-06)

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Migrated from Progress Sheet (TC Comment) (2000-07-10): Shall be // at formal vote level (glg-98-02-06)

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Specifies a potentiometric method for the determination of the titratable acidity of natural yogurt and fruit yogurt.

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The method consists in pre-drying of a test portion on a boiling water-bath and subsequent evaporation of the remaining water in a drying oven at a temperature of 102+2 °C.

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The principle of determination consists in dispersing the casein or caseinate in warm water, precipitating the fat and proteins, filtering and reducing the nitrate to nitrite in a portion of the filtrate by means of copperized cadmium. A figure shows the apparatus for nitrate reduction.

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The principle of determination consists in dissolving the dried whey in warm water, precipitating the fat and proteins, filtering and reducing the nitrate in a portion of the filtrate to nitrite by means of copperized cadmium. The sampling shall be made as specified in ISO 707. A figure shows the apparatus for nitrate reduction.

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Specifies a method on the principle of dissolution of a test portion in hot sodium carbonate, sodium polyphosphate or disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate solution, or in sodium hydroxide solution at room temperature or at 60 degrees centigrade, filtration of the solution through a filtering disk and visual comparison of dried disk with scorched particle standard disks. The testing of filtering disks is described in Annex A and Annex B gives information on the preparation of scorched particle standard disks.

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Specifies a method for determining the lactose and other soluble carbohydrates content of caseins and caseinates containing less than 2.0 % of total soluble carbohydrates. Before precipitation of the casein with acetic acid and sodium acetate solution and subsequent filtration a test portion is dissolved either in hot water in the case of caseinates or in hot water with the addition of sodium hydrogen carbonate in the case of acid caseins or in hot water with the addition of pentasodium triphosphate in the case of rennet casein. The content of total soluble carbohydrates is expressed as anhydrous lactose as a percentage by mass.

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Covers all types of casein (acid caseins and rennet caseins) and of caseinates. The principle is based on the electrometric determination of the pH of an aqueous extract of casein or an aqueous solution of caseinate using a pH meter.

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Is applicable to all types of caseins and caseinates. The principle consists in drying a test portion at 102 +/- 1 degree centigrade and weighing to determine the loss of mass which is expressed as a percentage by mass.

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Does not apply to caseins and caseinates containing ammonium caseinate or other ammonium compounds, or other nitrogenous nonprotein compounds. The principle of determination consists in digesting a test portion with a mixture of potassium sulphate and sulphuric acid, in the presence of copper(II) sulphate as catalyst, to convert organic nitrogen into ammoniacal nitrogen, distilling and absorbing the ammonia in boric acid solution, titrating with standard volumetric hydrochloric acid solution and multiplying the resualt by the factor 6.38.

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Covers both caseins obtained by rennet precipitation and caseinates, with the exception of ammonium caseinate. The principle of determination consists in incinerating a test portion at a temperature of 825 +/- 25 degrees centigrade and weighing the residue.

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Covers both caseins obtained by acid precipitation or lactic fermentation and rennet caseins. The principle of determination is based on the aqueous extraction of a test portion at 60 degrees centigrade, filtration and titration of the filtrate with a standard volumetric sodium hydroxide solution using phenophthalein as indicator.

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Covers caseins obtained by acid precipitation or lactic fermentation, ammonium caseinates, their mxtures with rennet casein and with caseinates, and caseins of unknown type. The principle of determination consists in incinerating a test portion at a temperature of 825 +/- 25 degrees centigrade in the presence of magnesium acetate to bind all phosphorus af organic origin, weighing the residue and subtracting the mass of ash originating from the magnesium acetate.

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