This document applies to plugs and receptacles for single or multiple pole connecting devices
used for aeronautical ground lighting applications.
Additional requirements and usage of connecting devices are given in different parts of
IEC 61820 series.
Connecting devices complying with this document are suitable for use in environmental class
E11 according to IEC 61820-1.

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IEC 63067:2020 applies to plugs and receptacles for single or multiple pole connecting devices used for aeronautical ground lighting applications.
Additional requirements and usage of connecting devices are given in different parts of IEC 61820 series.
Connecting devices complying with this document are suitable for use in environmental class E11 according to IEC 61820-1.

  • Standard
    45 pages
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This European Standard specifies the mathematical processing of digitized longitudinal profile measurements to produce evenness indices. The document describes the calculation procedure for the International Roughness Index (IRI), Root Mean Square (RMS) and Longitudinal Profile Variance (LPV) from three separate wavelength bands and the σWLP and ΔWLP from the Weighted Longitudinal Profile (WLP).
The purpose of this document is to provide a standard practice for calculating and reporting estimates of road evenness from digitized longitudinal profiles. Other aims with the standard are to facilitate the comparison of evenness measurement results carried out with different profiling instruments in European countries.
The evenness range covered in this standard is defined as the wavelength range 0.5 m to 50 m. It should be noted that both shorter and longer wavelengths can also influence the driving comfort but those are not covered in this standard.
The quantified evenness indices derived from the standard are useful support for pavement management systems. The output can also be used for type approval and performance control of new and old pavements. The indices can be used on rigid, flexible and gravel road surfaces.
The standard doesn´t define from what position on the road the longitudinal profile should be obtained.
The derived indices are portable in the sense that they can be obtained from longitudinal profiles measured with a variety of instruments.

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This part of IEC 61820 covers principles of design and installation requirements for AGL
systems including control, monitoring and transformation of energy, the cables and any
electrical component utilized to produce the light intended to be used as a visual aid for air
and ground navigation.
This document defines in general the fundamental principles to provide safe, reliable and
efficient operation of AGL systems independent of the particular system design. Where certain
aspects of design are specific to a particular type of system (e.g. series-circuit), these are
supplemented in the applicable part.
NOTE Local / national regulations can be different from the provisions of this document.

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IEC 61820-1:2019 covers principles of design and installation requirements for AGL systems including control, monitoring and transformation of energy, the cables and any electrical component utilized to produce the light intended to be used as a visual aid for air and ground navigation. This document defines in general the fundamental principles to provide safe, reliable and efficient operation of AGL systems independent of the particular system design. Where certain aspects of design are specific to a particular type of system (e.g. series-circuit), these are supplemented in the applicable part.

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    19 pages
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IEC 61820-1:2019 covers principles of design and installation requirements for AGL systems including control, monitoring and transformation of energy, the cables and any electrical component utilized to produce the light intended to be used as a visual aid for air and ground navigation. This document defines in general the fundamental principles to provide safe, reliable and efficient operation of AGL systems independent of the particular system design. Where certain aspects of design are specific to a particular type of system (e.g. series-circuit), these are supplemented in the applicable part.

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    33 pages
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D105/108: lifetime of ENV extended up to 2002-11-01 * D110/074: CLC/TC97X renamed CLC/TC97 * Will be surperseded by CLC/prTS 50230 (PR=20689)

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This Technical Specification describes a method for determining the wet road skid resistance of a surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient LFCN. The described method is also used to determine the skid resistance on a surface covered by ice or snow.

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This International Standard specifies protective provisions for the operation of lamp systems
powered by series circuits in aeronautical ground lighting.
The protective provisions described here refer only to secondary supply systems for loads
that are electrically separated from the series circuit.
This standard specifies the level of SELV, and alternatively PELV, under consideration of
additional personnel protection during work on live secondary circuits by electrically skilled
persons. This standard also covers the special operational features of aeronautical ground
lighting and addresses the level of training and the requirements for maintenance procedures
detailed in IEC 61821.
The requirements and tests are intended to set a specification framework for system
designers, users, and maintenance personnel to ensure a safe and economic use of electrical
systems in installations for the beaconing of aerodromes.
This standard complements existing IEC Airfield-Ground- Lighting (AGL) standards and can
be used as a design specification.

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This Technical Specification describes a method for determining the wet road skid resistance of a surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient LFCN. The described method is also used to determine the skid resistance on a surface covered by ice or snow.
The method provides friction coefficient measurements of the pavement by using an electrically braked test wheel.
ViaFriction can operate in the following modes:
-   Fixed slip: The slip ratio is fixed. The slip ratio can be set to a value from 1 % to 75 %.
-   Fixed slip speed: The slip speed is fixed. The slip speed has to be lower than the vehicle speed.
-   Variable slip: The test wheel is braked from 0 % to 75 % slip ratio recording F 30, F 60 and the slip ratio/friction curve.
The test tyre is dragged over a pre-wetted pavement under controlled speed conditions while the test tyre is parallel to the direction of motion and perpendicular to the pavement. Skid resistance measurement on winter roads do not require pre-wetted pavement.
To determine the macrotexture of the pavement surface a laser system can be added. This system is placed in front of the towing vehicle in order to measure the macrotexture (mean profile depth - MPD) on dry pavements and on the same path as the skid resistance measurement is done. The standard for this measurement and the device is described in EN ISO 13473 1.

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IEC 62870:2015 specifies protective provisions for the operation of lamp systems powered by series circuits in aeronautical ground lighting. The protective provisions described here refer only to secondary supply systems for loads that are electrically separated from the series circuit.

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IEC 62870:2015 specifies protective provisions for the operation of lamp systems powered by series circuits in aeronautical ground lighting. The protective provisions described here refer only to secondary supply systems for loads that are electrically separated from the series circuit.

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This Technical Specification describes a method only used on airports for determining the skid resistance of pavements by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient LFCI.
The method provides a measure of the wet skid resistance properties of a bound surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient using a trailer with a standard slip ratio of 15 %. The slip ratio can be chosen between 0 % and 100 % for research application.
The test tyre is dragged over a pre wetted pavement under vertical force and constant speed conditions while the test tyre is parallel to the direction of motion.
This Technical Specification covers the operation of the IMAG device.
The skid resistance of a pavement is determined by friction measurements at different speeds. Tests can be performed between 40 km/h and 120 km/h but standard test speeds are 40 km/h, 65 km/h and 95 km/h. Low speed measurements asses the microtexture while high speed measurements asses the macrotexture. The skid resistance is reported as friction measurements at these speeds and by comparison with the minimum friction level.

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This Technical Specification describes a method only used on airports for determining the skid resistance of pavements by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient LFCI.
The method provides a measure of the wet skid resistance properties of a bound surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient using a trailer with a standard slip ratio of 15 %. The slip ratio can be chosen between 0 % and 100 % for research application.
The test tyre is dragged over a pre-wetted pavement under vertical force and constant speed conditions while the test tyre is parallel to the direction of motion.
This Technical Specification covers the operation of the IMAG device.
The skid resistance of a pavement is determined by friction measurements at different speeds. Tests can be performed between 40 km/h and 120 km/h but standard test speeds are 40 km/h, 65 km/h and 95 km/h. Low speed measurements asses the microtexture while high speed measurements asses the macrotexture. The skid resistance is reported as friction measurements at these speeds and by comparison with the minimum friction level.

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IEC 61821:2011 applies to the maintenance of AGL constant current series circuits. This International Standard: - covers constant current series circuits for AGL installed at aerodromes and heliports; - concentrates on providing the safety requirements for the maintenance of an AGL constant current series circuit. It is recognized that AGL constant current series circuits of different design characteristics and parameters are in existence; - is mainly concerned with safety to persons by specifying the rules and fundamental principles for the maintenance of AGL constant current series circuits; - is not intended to apply to AGL primary series circuits supplied directly from a mains constant voltage source; - is not intended to be used for public street lighting, roadway lighting or any other installation requiring the use of constant current series circuits. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2002. It is a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: a) addition of references to normative references; b) addition of notes in Clauses 5, 6 and 7; c) modification of pre-work procedures in item e) of 7.2.2.

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This European standard describes a method for determining the slip/skid resistance of a surface using a device which remains stationary at the test location. The slip/skid resistance is measured by means of a pendulum arm. The method provides a measure of the slip/skid resistance properties of a surface either in the field or in the
laboratory. This method measures the slip/skid resistance of a small area of a surface (approximately 0,01 m2). This should be considered when deciding its applicability to a surface which may have non-homogeneous surface characteristics, e.g. containing ridges or grooves, or is rough textured (exceeding 1,2 mm patch test).
NOTE 1 As the results from this test are taken at one small location, the results cannot be compared with results from devices e. g. mobile devices, that measure the slip/skid resistance over a long length of a surface. NOTE 2 The accuracy and precision of the test can be affected by the operative. The test should be carried out by a
trained and competent person who has carried out the validation procedure in Annex A.1.

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This European Standard describes a method for determining the slip/skid resistance of a surface using a device which remains stationary at the test location. The slip/skid resistance is measured by means of a slider mounted at the end of a pendulum arm.
The method provides a measure of the slip/skid resistance properties of a surface either in the field or in the laboratory.
This method measures the slip/skid resistance of a small area of a surface (approximately 0,01 m2). This should be considered when deciding its applicability to a surface which may have non-homogeneous surface characteristics, e.g. containing ridges or grooves, or is rough textured (exceeding 1,2 mm patch test).
NOTE   As the results from this test are taken at one small location, the results cannot be compared with results from devices e.g. mobile devices, that measure the slip/skid resistance over a long length of a surface.

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IEC 61821:2011 applies to the maintenance of AGL constant current series circuits. This International Standard:
- covers constant current series circuits for AGL installed at aerodromes and heliports;
- concentrates on providing the safety requirements for the maintenance of an AGL constant current series circuit. It is recognized that AGL constant current series circuits of different design characteristics and parameters are in existence;
- is mainly concerned with safety to persons by specifying the rules and fundamental principles for the maintenance of AGL constant current series circuits;
- is not intended to apply to AGL primary series circuits supplied directly from a mains constant voltage source;
- is not intended to be used for public street lighting, roadway lighting or any other installation requiring the use of constant current series circuits.
This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2002. It is a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) addition of references to normative references;
b) addition of notes in Clauses 5, 6 and 7;
c) modification of pre-work procedures in item e) of 7.2.2.

  • Standard
    55 pages
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This document describes a method for determining the wet-road skid resistance of a surface by measurement of a sideway force coefficient SFCO. The method provides a measure of the wet-road skid resistance properties of a bound surface by measurement of sideway-force coefficient at a controlled speed. The method has been developed for use on roads but is also applicable to other paved areas such as airport runways.
This document covers the operation of the Odoliograph. This is a device developed by the Belgian Road Research Centre that uses the side-force principle to make routine, expertise and research measurements of skid resistance continuously on long lengths of road.
A machine conforming to the general characteristics of the Odoliograph designed by the Belgian Road Research Centre and the specific provisions of this document may also be used for the tests.
The skid resistance of a pavement is determined by friction measurements and measurements of pavement texture. Where measurement of pavement texture is required the standard for this measurement and the device is described in EN ISO 13473-1.

  • Standardization document
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This document describes a method for determining the skid resistance of a paved surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient my SRM.
The method provides a measure of the wet skid resistance properties of a bound surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient using a locked wheel with a slip ratio of 0 % (locked wheel: standard), or a slip ratio of (15 +- 1) % or ABS and a controlled speed. The test tyre is dragged over a pre-wetted pavement under controlled load and constant speed conditions while the test tyre is parallel to the direction of motion and to the pavement.
This document covers the operation of the Stuttgarter Reibungsmesser (SRM) of the IVT ETH Zürich.

  • Technical specification
    12 pages
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This document describes a method for determining the skid resistance of a surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient LFCN.
The method provides a measure of the wet skid resistance properties of a bound surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient using a continuous reading braked wheel fixed-slip device.
The test tyre is dragged, parallel to the direction of motion and perpendicular to a pre-wetted pavement under controlled speed conditions.
This document covers the operation of the BV11 and SAAB Friction Tester (SFT) with a fixed slip ratio of 17 %.
Machines conforming to the general characteristics of the BV11 and SAAB Friction Tester and with the specific provisions of this document may also be used for the tests.

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This Technical Specification describes a method for determining the skid resistance of a surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient LFCN.
The method provides a measure of the wet skid resistance properties of a bound surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient using a continuous reading braked wheel fixed-slip device.
The test tyre is dragged, parallel to the direction of motion and perpendicular to a pre-wetted pavement under controlled speed conditions.
This document covers the operation of the BV11 and SAAB Friction Tester (SFT) with a fixed slip ratio of 17 %.
Machines conforming to the general characteristics of the BV11 and SAAB Friction Tester and with the specific provisions of this document may also be used for the tests.

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This Technical Specification describes a method for determining the skid resistance of paved surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient SRM
The method provides a measure of the wet skid resistance properties of a bound surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient using a locked wheel with a slip ratio of 0 % (locked wheel: standard), or a slip ratio of (15  1) % or ABS and a controlled speed. The test tyre is dragged over a pre-wetted pavement under controlled load and constant speed conditions while the test tyre is parallel to the direction of motion and to the pavement.
This document covers the operation of the Stuttgarter Reibungsmesser (SRM) of the IVT ETH Zürich.

  • Technical specification
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This Technical Specification describes a method for determining the wet-road skid resistance of a surface by measurement of a sideway force coefficient SFCO. The method provides a measure of the wet-road skid resistance properties of a bound surface by measurement of sideway-force coefficient at a controlled speed. The method has been developed for use on roads but is also applicable to other paved areas such as airport runways.
This Technical Specification covers the operation of the Odoliograph. This is a device developed by the Belgian Road Research Centre that uses the side-force principle to make routine, expertise and research measurements of skid resistance continuously on long lengths of road.
A machine conforming to the general characteristics of the Odoliograph designed by the Belgian Road Research Centre and the specific provisions of this document may also be used for the tests.
The skid resistance of a pavement is determined by friction measurements and measurements of pavement texture. Where measurement of pavement texture is required the standard for this measurement and the device is described in EN ISO 13473 1.

  • Standardization document
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This European Standard specifies a method for determining the average depth of pavement surface
macrotexture by careful application of a known volume of material on the surface and subsequent
measurement of the total area covered. The technique is designed to provide an average depth value of only
the pavement macrotexture and is considered insensitive to pavement microtexture characteristics.
This test method is suitable for field tests to determine the average macrotexture depth of a pavement
surface. When used in conjunction with other physical tests, the macrotexture depth values derived from this
test method can be used to determine the pavement skid resistance capability, noise characteristics and the
suitability of paving materials or finishing techniques. When used with other tests, care should be taken that all
tests are applied at the same location.

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    11 pages
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This European Standard specifies a method for determining the average depth of pavement surface
macrotexture by careful application of a known volume of material on the surface and subsequent
measurement of the total area covered. The technique is designed to provide an average depth value of only
the pavement macrotexture and is considered insensitive to pavement microtexture characteristics.
This test method is suitable for field tests to determine the average macrotexture depth of a pavement
surface. When used in conjunction with other physical tests, the macrotexture depth values derived from this
test method can be used to determine the pavement skid resistance capability, noise characteristics and the
suitability of paving materials or finishing techniques. When used with other tests, care should be taken that all
tests are applied at the same location.

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This method defines a process for comparing the friction results from a number of devices.
By combining together the friction and texture from individual measuring devices, it allows skid resistance determined by different dynamic methods to be expressed on a common scale, namely the Skid Resistance Index (SRI).
As its precision has not been determined, the method should not be used in specifications for surface materials.
Friction is essential for a safe grip between vehicle and surface. Surfaces can be in different conditions and of different types, which can lead to varying friction. Another important factor is the climate and weather conditions that indeed affect the friction, in most cases for the worse. This standard excludes surfaces when they are in winter road condition. It also excludes road marking surfaces.

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This Technical Specification describes a method for determining the wet-road skid resistance of a surface by measuring the LFCD.
The method provides a measure of the wet-road skid resistance properties of a bound surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient at a fixed slip ratio of 86 % and at a controlled speed. The method has been developed for use on roads, but is also applicable to other paved areas such as airports.
This Technical Specification covers the following proprietary devices:
- DWWNL skid resistance trailer device, which has been developed by the Dienst Weg en Waterbouwkunde (DWW) of Rijkswaterstaat in the Netherlands. The device uses a standard PIARC smooth test tyre being dragged over a pre-wetted pavement under controlled speed conditions while its running direction is parallel to the direction of motion and perpendicular to the pavement. Several DWW skid resistance trailer devices have been manufactured under license and operate in combination with variable towing vehicles.

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This Technical Specification describes a method for determining the skid resistance of a surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient LFCG.
The method provides a measure of the wet skid resistance properties of a bound surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient using a continuous reading small braked wheel fixed-slip device.
The test tyre is dragged over a pre-wetted pavement under controlled speed conditions while the test tyre is parallel to the direction of motion and perpendicular to the pavement.
Test speeds can vary from 5 km/h to 130 km/h depending on the application. The measured values can be affected by the test speed.
The method has been developed for use on paved areas such as roads and airport runways and can also be used indoors.
This Technical Specification covers the operation of the Griptester:
The GripTester(registered trademark) is a device developed by Findlay Irvine Ltd in the United Kingdom that uses the braked-wheel fixed-slip principle with a small test wheel to make measurements of skid resistance continuously on airfields, roads and other surfaces. The fixed slip ratio is 15 %.
A machine conforming to the general characteristics of the GripTester and the specific provisions of this Technical Specification may also be used for the tests.
The skid resistance of a pavement is determined by friction measurements and measurements of pavement texture. Where measurement of pavement texture is required the standard for this measurement and the device is described in EN ISO 13473 1.

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This Technical Specification describes a method for determining the skid resistance of pavements by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient LFCT.
The method provides a measure of the skid resistance properties of a bound surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient using a continuous reading braked test wheel with a slip ratio of 25 % (standard) or a variable slip between 0 % to 100 % (for research measurements).
The test tyre is dragged over a pre-wetted pavement under controlled load and constant speed conditions. The measured values can be affected by the test speed.
This technical specification covers the operation of the Tatra Runway Tester (TRT).
The acronym Tatra Runway Tester (TRT) applies to a device, developed by Tatra Kopřivnice in the Czech Republic to perform routine, continuous measurements of friction for long road sections or punctual measurements at different speeds to characterise a particular section. It is not manufactured under license.
A machine conforming to the general characteristics of the TRT and the specific provisions of this Technical Specification may also be used for the tests.
The skid resistance of a pavement is determined by friction measurements and measurements of pavement texture. Where measurement of pavement texture is required, the standard for this measurement and the device is described in EN ISO 13473-1.

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This document describes a method for determining the skid resistance of a surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient LFCN.
The method provides a measure of the wet skid resistance properties of a bound surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient using a continuous reading braked wheel fixed-slip device.The test tyre is dragged over a pre-wetted pavement under controlled speed conditions while the test tyre is parallel to the direction of motion and perpendicular to the pavement.This Technical Specification covers the operation of the Road Analyser and Recorder of Norsemeter (ROAR). The fixed slip ratio is 20 %.
A machine conforming to the general characteristics of the ROAR and the specific provisions of this Technical Specification may also be used for the tests.
In addition to friction measurements, to determine the macro texture of the pavement surface a laser system is used. This system is placed in front of the towing vehicle in order to measure the macro texture (mean profile depth - MPD) on dry pavements and on the same path as the skid resistance measurement is done. The standard for this measurement and the device is described in EN ISO 13473-1.
The skid resistance of a pavement is determined by friction measurements and measurements of pavement texture. The skid resistance may be reported either as friction measurement or as a combination of friction and texture measurements.

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This Technical Specification describes a method for determining the wet road skid resistance of a surface by measuring the LFCRNL using the Road Analyser and Recorder of Norsemeter (ROAR).
In addition to the friction measurement also measurements of pavement texture can be performed.
The method provides friction coefficient measurements of pavements by using a hydraulically braked test wheel at a pre set slip ratio, which can be fixed from 5 % to 95 %. Default value for the Netherlands is 86 %.
The standard test tyre is dragged over a pre wetted pavement under controlled load and speed conditions while its running direction is parallel to the direction of motion and perpendicular to the pavement.
To determine the macro texture of the pavement a laser system is used. This system is placed in front of the towing vehicle in order to measure the macro texture on dry pavements and on the same path as the skid resistance measurement is done. The standard for this measurement and the used measuring device are well described in standards EN ISO 13473-1 and ISO 13473-2.

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This Technical Specification describes a method for determining the skid resistance of paved surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient µSkid.
The method provides a measure of the wet skid resistance properties of a bound surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient using a locked wheel with a slip ratio of 0 % (locked wheel: standard), or a slip ratio of (14 ± 1) % and a controlled speed. The test tyre is dragged over a pre-wetted pavement under controlled load and constant speed conditions while the test tyre is parallel to the direction of motion and to the pavement.
This Technical Specification covers the operation of the Skiddometer, Type BV 8, used in Switzerland.

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This Technical Specification describes a method for determining the skid resistance of a paved surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient LFCS. This Technical specification covers the operation of the Road Surface Tester of arsenal research (RoadSTAR).
The method "RoadSTAR" provides a measure of the skid resistance properties of a bound surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient using a continuous reading car sized braked wheel fixed slip device.
The method "RoadSTAR" provides skid resistance measurements of pavements by using the modified Stuttgart skiddometer (Stuttgarter Reibungsmesser). RoadSTAR utilizes a measurement representing the steady-state friction on a braked test wheel at a slip ratio of 82 % (for standard conditions), 37,5 %, 50 %, 75 % (for comparison measurements), with locked wheel or under ABS - braking conditions (for research measurements). The test wheel is dragged over a pre wetted pavement surface under controlled load and speed conditions while the test tyre is parallel to the direction of motion and perpendicular to the pavement.
NOTE   Three different slip ratios are retained in order to use the same slip speed for the three different nominal testing speeds of 40 km/h, 60 km/h and 80 km/h for comparison measurements. The common slip speed is chosen equal to 30 km/h:
- for a testing speed of 40 km/h it is necessary to apply a slip ratio of 75 %,
- for a testing speed of 60 km/h it is necessary to apply a slip ratio of 50 %,
- for a testing speed of 80 km/h it is necessary to apply a slip ratio of 37,5 %.
A machine conforming to the general characteristics of the RoadSTAR and the specific provisions of this Technical Specification should be used for the tests.
In addition to friction measurements, to estimate the macro texture of the pavement surface, a laser system is used. (....)

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This Technical Specification describes a method for determining the wet road skid resistance of a surface by measurement of the sideway force coefficient SFCS.
The method provides a measure of the wet road skid resistance properties of a bound surface by measurement of sideway force coefficient at a controlled speed. The method has been developed for use on roads but is also applicable to other paved areas such as airport runways.
This technical specification covers the operation of the Sideway force Coefficient Routine Investigation Machine SCRIM. This is a device developed by the "Transport Research Laboratory in the United Kingdom" that uses the side force principle to make routine measurements of skid resistance continuously on long lengths of road. SCRIM test equipment has been built onto a number of different vehicle chassis and functions independently of vehicle choice.
A machine conforming to the general characteristics of the SCRIM designed by the Transport Research Laboratory and the specific provisions of this Technical Specification may also be used for the tests.
The skid resistance of a pavement is determined by friction measurements and measurements of pavement texture. Where measurement of pavement texture is required the standard for this measurement and the device is described in EN ISO 13473 1.

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This Technical Specification describes a method for determining the skid resistance of pavements by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient LFCA.
The method provides a measure of the wet skid resistance properties of a bound surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient using a locked wheel trailer with a slip ratio of 100 % (locked wheel: standard), or a variable slip between 0 % to 100 % (for research measurements). Within this method the steady state friction on a braked test wheel is measured.
The test tyre is dragged over a pre wetted pavement under controlled load and constant speed conditions while the test tyre is parallel to the direction of motion and perpendicular to the pavement.
This technical specification covers the operation of the ADHERA device.
NOTE   The research measurements are not yet measured by all the ADHERA but with only one called "ADHERA research".
In addition to friction measurements, to determine the macro texture of the pavement surface a laser system is used (mlpc device named RUGO). This system is placed just before the test wheel in order to measure the macro texture (mean profile depth - MPD) on dry pavements and on the same path as the skid resistance measurement is done. The standard for this measurement and the device is described in EN ISO 13473 1.
The skid resistance of a pavement is determined by friction measurements and measurements of pavement texture. The skid resistance may be reported either as friction measurement or as a combination of friction and texture measurements.

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This Technical Specification describes a method for determining the wet-road skid resistance of a surface by measurement of the sideway-force coefficient SFCD.
The method provides a measure of the wet-road skid resistance properties of a bound surface by measurement of sideway-force coefficient at a controlled speed.
This Technical Specification covers the operation of the sideway-force Coefficient Machine (SKM) developed in Germany.
The SKM skid resistance measurement technique determines the sideway-force acting on a particular, angled wheel.
NOTE   Because wet pavement surfaces exhibit especially large differences in adhesion and constitute an almost exclusive environment in which the adhesion between tyre and pavement can drop to critically low levels, the test pavement is wetted in the region of the test wheel line during measurements.
The SKM measurement technique has been developed for Network-wide measurements of skid resistance during road monitoring and assessment of pavement surfaces on German federal motorways and highways. It is also applicable to skid resistance measurements for road construction contracts.
The skid resistance of a pavement is determined by friction measurements and measurements of pavement texture. Where measurement of pavement texture is required the standard for this measurement and the device is described in EN ISO 13473-1.

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This Technical Specification describes a method for determining the wet-road skid resistance of a surface by measurement of the sideway-force coefficient SFCD.
The method provides a measure of the wet-road skid resistance properties of a bound surface by measurement of sideway-force coefficient at a controlled speed.
This Technical Specification covers the operation of the sideway-force Coefficient Machine (SKM) developed in Germany.
The SKM skid resistance measurement technique determines the sideway-force acting on a particular, angled wheel.
The SKM measurement technique has been developed for Network-wide measurements of skid resistance during road monitoring and assessment of pavement surfaces on German federal motorways and highways. It is also applicable to skid resistance measurements for road construction contracts.
The skid resistance of a pavement is determined by friction measurements and measurements of pavement texture. Where measurement of pavement texture is required the standard for this measurement and the device is described in EN ISO 13473-1.

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This Technical Specification describes a method for determining the skid resistance of a surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient LFCG.
The method provides a measure of the wet skid resistance properties of a bound surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient using a continuous reading small braked wheel fixed-slip device.
The test tyre is dragged over a pre-wetted pavement under controlled speed conditions while the test tyre is parallel to the direction of motion and perpendicular to the pavement.
Test speeds can vary from 5 km/h to 130 km/h depending on the application. The measured values can be affected by the test speed.
The method has been developed for use on paved areas such as roads and airport runways and may also be used indoors.
This Technical Specification covers the operation of the GripTester.
The GripTester is a device developed by Findlay Irvine Ltd in the United Kingdom that uses the braked-wheel fixed-slip principle with a small test wheel to make measurements of skid resistance continuously on airfields, roads and other surfaces. The fixed slip ratio is 15 %.
A machine conforming to the general characteristics of the GripTester and the specific provisions of this Technical Specification may also be used for the tests.
The skid resistance of a pavement is determined by friction measurements and measurements of pavement texture. Where measurement of pavement texture is required the standard for this measurement and the device is described in EN ISO 13473 1.

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This Technical Specification describes a method for determining the wet road skid resistance of a surface by measurement of the sideway force coefficient SFCS.
The method provides a measure of the wet road skid resistance properties of a bound surface by measurement of sideway force coefficient at a controlled speed. The method has been developed for use on roads but is also applicable to other paved areas such as airport runways.
This Technical Specification covers the operation of the Sideway force Coefficient Routine Investigation Machine SCRIM®. This is a device developed by W.D.M. Limited, Bristol, England from original research by the Transport Research Laboratory in the United Kingdom. It uses the side force principle to make routine measurements of skid resistance continuously on long lengths of road. SCRIM test equipment has been built onto a number of different vehicle chassis and functions independently of vehicle choice.
A machine conforming to the general characteristics of the SCRIM and the specific provisions of this Technical Specification may also be used for the tests.
The skid resistance of a pavement is determined by friction measurements and measurements of pavement texture. Where measurement of pavement texture is required the standard for this measurement and the device is described in EN ISO 13473 1.
The skid resistance of a pavement is determined by friction measurements and measurements of pavement texture. Where measurement of pavement texture is required the standard for this measurement and the device is described in EN ISO 13473 1.

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This Technical Specification describes a method for determining the skid resistance of a paved surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient LFCS. This Technical Specification covers the operation of the Road Surface Tester of arsenal research (RoadSTAR).
The method "RoadSTAR” provides a measure of the skid resistance properties of a bound surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient using a continuous reading car sized braked wheel fixed slip device.
The method "RoadSTAR” provides skid resistance measurements of pavements by using the modified Stuttgart skiddometer (Stuttgarter Reibungsmesser). RoadSTAR utilizes a measurement representing the steady-state friction on a braked test wheel at a slip ratio of 82 % (for standard conditions), 37,5 %, 50 %, 75 % (for comparison measurements), with locked wheel or under ABS-braking conditions (for research measurements). The test wheel is dragged over a pre wetted pavement surface under controlled load and speed conditions while the test tyre is parallel to the direction of motion and perpendicular to the pavement.
NOTE   Three different slip ratios are retained in order to use the same slip speed for the three different nominal testing speeds of 40 km/h, 60 km/h and 80 km/h for comparison measurements. The common slip speed is chosen equal to 30 km/h:
-   for a testing speed of 40 km/h a slip ratio of 75 % should be applied;
-   for a testing speed of 60 km/h a slip ratio of 50 % should be applied;
-   for a testing speed of 80 km/h a slip ratio of 37,5 % should be applied.
A machine conforming to the general characteristics of the RoadSTAR and the specific provisions of this Technical Specification should be used for the tests.
In addition to friction measurements, to estimate the macro texture of the pavement surface, a laser system is used. This system is placed in front of the test wheel in order to be able to measure macrotexture (mean profile depth – MDP) on the dry surface and o

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This Technical Specification describes a method for determining the skid resistance of paved surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient µSkid.
The method provides a measure of the wet skid resistance properties of a bound surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient using a locked wheel with a slip ratio of 0 % (locked wheel: standard), or a slip ratio of (14 +- 1) % and a controlled speed. The test tyre is dragged over a pre-wetted pavement under controlled load and constant speed conditions while the test tyre is parallel to the direction of motion and to the pavement.
This Technical Specification covers the operation of the Skiddometer, Type BV 8, used in Switzerland.

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This Technical Specification describes a method for determining the skid resistance of a surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient LFCN.
The method provides a measure of the wet skid resistance properties of a bound surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient using a continuous reading braked wheel fixed-slip device.
The test tyre is dragged over a pre-wetted pavement under controlled speed conditions while the test tyre is parallel to the direction of motion and perpendicular to the pavement.
This Technical Specification covers the operation of the Road Analyser and Recorder of Norsemeter (ROAR). The fixed slip ratio is 20 %.
A machine conforming to the general characteristics of the ROAR and the specific provisions of this Technical Specification may also be used for the tests.
In addition to friction measurements, to determine the macrotexture of the pavement surface a laser system is used. This system is placed in front of the towing vehicle in order to measure the macrotexture (mean profile depth - MPD) on dry pavements and on the same path as the skid resistance measurement is done. The standard for this measurement and the device is described in EN ISO 13473-1.
The skid resistance of a pavement is determined by friction measurements and measurements of pavement texture. The skid resistance may be reported either as friction measurement or as a combination of friction and texture measurements.

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This Technical Specification describes a method for determining the wet-road skid resistance of a surface by measuring the LFCD.
The method provides a measure of the wet-road skid resistance properties of a bound surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient at a fixed slip ratio of 86 % and at a controlled speed. The method has been developed for use on roads, but is also applicable to other paved areas such as airports.
This Technical Specification covers the following proprietary devices:
RWSNL skid resistance trailer device, which has been developed by the Rijkswaterstaat in the Netherlands. The device uses a standard PIARC smooth test tyre being dragged over a pre-wetted pavement under controlled speed conditions while its running direction is parallel to the direction of motion and perpendicular to the pavement. Several RWS skid resistance trailer devices have been manufactured under license and operate in combination with variable towing vehicles.

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This Technical Specification describes a method for determining the wet road skid resistance of a surface by measuring the LFCRNL using the Road Analyser and Recorder of Norsemeter (ROAR).
In addition to the friction measurement also measurements of pavement texture may be performed.
The method provides friction coefficient measurements of pavements by using a hydraulically braked test wheel at a pre set slip ratio, which may be fixed from 5 % to 95 %. Default value for the Netherlands is 86 %.
The standard test tyre is dragged over a pre wetted pavement under controlled load and speed conditions while its running direction is parallel to the direction of motion and perpendicular to the pavement.
To determine the macrotexture of the pavement a laser system is used. This system is placed in front of the towing vehicle in order to measure the macrotexture on dry pavements and on the same path as the skid resistance measurement is done. The standard for this measurement and the used measuring device are well described in EN ISO 13473-1 and ISO 13473-2.

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This Technical Specification describes a method for determining the skid resistance of pavements by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient LFCA.
The method provides a measure of the wet skid resistance properties of a bound surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient using a locked wheel trailer with a slip ratio of 100 % (locked wheel: standard), or a variable slip between 0 % to 100 % (for research measurements). Within this method the steady state friction on a braked test wheel is measured.
The test tyre is dragged over a pre wetted pavement under controlled load and constant speed conditions while the test tyre is parallel to the direction of motion and perpendicular to the pavement.
This technical specification covers the operation of the ADHERA device.
NOTE   The research measurements are not yet measured by all the ADHERA but with only one called "ADHERA research".
In addition to friction measurements, to determine the macrotexture of the pavement surface a laser system is used (mlpc device named RUGO). This system is placed just before the test wheel in order to measure the macrotexture (mean profile depth - MPD) on dry pavements and on the same path as the skid resistance measurement is done. The standard for this measurement and the device is described in EN ISO 13473 1.
The skid resistance of a pavement is determined by friction measurements and measurements of pavement texture. The skid resistance may be reported either as friction measurement or as a combination of friction and texture measurements.

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This Technical Specification describes a method for determining the skid resistance of pavements by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient LFCT.
The method provides a measure of the skid resistance properties of a bound surface by measurement of the longitudinal friction coefficient using a continuous reading braked test wheel with a slip ratio of 25 % (standard) or a variable slip between 0 % to 100 % (for research measurements).
The test tyre is dragged over a pre-wetted pavement under controlled load and constant speed conditions. The measured values can be affected by the test speed.
This Technical Specification covers the operation of the Tatra Runway Tester (TRT).
The acronym Tatra Runway Tester (TRT) applies to a device, developed by Tatra Kopřivnice in the Czech Republic to perform routine, continuous measurements of friction for long road sections or punctual measurements at different speeds to characterise a particular section. It is not manufactured under license.
A machine conforming to the general characteristics of the TRT and the specific provisions of this Technical Specification may also be used for the tests.
The skid resistance of a pavement is determined by friction measurements and measurements of pavement texture. Where measurement of pavement texture is required, the standard for this measurement and the device is described in EN ISO 13473-1.

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This International Standard specifies the requirements for a Constant Current Regulator (CCR) having a nominal output of 6,6 A for use in an aeronautical ground lighting constant current series circuit. However, CCRs may be manufactured which have a different power rating (kVA) and current steps than those specified in this standard in order to be used on existing circuits. This standard should be applied where appropriate for these CCRs.

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This European Standard specifies requirements of electrical and mechanical design, installation, maintenance and testing procedures for advanced visual docking guidance systems.

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