This European Standard is applicable to sodium chloride intended for on site electrochlorination of water intended for human consumption using membrane cells. It describes the characteristics and specifies the requirements and the corresponding test methods for sodium chloride (see Annex B). It gives information on its use in water treatment.

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This document is applicable to liquefied ammonia used for treatment of water intended for human consumption. It describes the characteristics and specifies the requirements of liquefied ammonia and refers to the corresponding analytical methods. It gives information for its use in water treatment. It also determines the rules relating to the safe handling and use of liquefied ammonia (see Annex B).

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This document specifies general requirements to be respected in product standards for components such as pipes, fittings, inspection chambers and manholes with their respective joints intended for use in drains and sewers inside and outside buildings which operate as gravity systems allowing for a maximum pressure of 40 kPa.
It also specifies general requirements for components used in hydraulically and pneumatically pressurized discharge pipes, drains and sewers.
NOTE 1   Where the term "inside buildings" is used in the context of components fixed inside buildings, it also includes discharge pipes and fittings fixed on external surfaces of buildings
NOTE 2   This document is not a product standard and therefore not intended for the direct evaluation of products.
This document covers components to be used in conveying in a satisfactory manner:
-   domestic wastewater;
-   rainwater and surface water; and
-   other waste waters acceptable for discharge into the system (e.g. industrial wastewater).
This document applies to components of circular and other cross sections.
This document applies equally to components which are factory-made and to those constructed on site, where applicable.
NOTE 3   This document does not apply to components used for trenchless construction according to EN 14457 and for components used for renovation of drains and sewers according to EN 13380.
This document does not supersede the functional requirements of a complete system as defined in EN 752.

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This document is applicable to sodium chloride intended for on site electrochlorination of water intended for human consumption using non-membrane technology. It describes the characteristics and specifies the requirements and the corresponding test methods for sodium chloride (see Annex B). It gives information on its use in water treatment.

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This document is applicable to ammonium sulfate used for treatment of water intended for human consumption. It describes the characteristics and specifies the requirements of ammonium sulfate and refers to the corresponding analytical methods. It gives information on its use in water treatment.

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This document is applicable to sodium hydrogen sulfite used for treatment of water intended for human consumption. It describes the characteristics of sodium hydrogen sulfite and specifies the requirements and the corresponding test methods for sodium hydrogen sulfite. It gives information on its use in water treatment.

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This document is applicable to sodium disulfite used for treatment of water intended for human consumption. It describes the characteristics of sodium disulfite and specifies the requirements and the corresponding test methods for sodium disulfite. It gives information on its use in water treatment. It also determines the rules relating to safe handling and use (see Annex B).

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This document is applicable to sodium used for treatment of water intended for human consumption. It describes the characteristics and specifies the requirements of sodium sulfite and refers to the corresponding analytical methods. It gives information for its use in water treatment.

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This document specifies, the dimensional, the physical-chemical, the design, the hydraulic, the mechanical and the acoustic characteristics of mechanical disconnectors flow actuated Family G, type B.
This document is applicable to mechanical disconnectors flow actuated in nominal sizes DN 8 up to DN 250, intended to prevent the return of water having lost its original sanitary and drinking qualities (called “polluted water” in this document), into the potable water distribution system whenever the pressure of the latter is temporarily lower than in the polluted circuit.
This document covers the mechanical disconnector of PN 10 that are capable of working without modification or adjustment:
- at any pressure up to 1,0 MPa (10 bar);
- in permanent duty at a limit temperature of 65 °C and 90 °C for 1 h maximum.
It specifies also the test methods and requirements for verifying these characteristics, the marking and the presentation at delivery.

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This document specifies a procedure to determine the migration of substances from non-metallic and non-cementitious site-applied materials for use in contact with water intended for human consumption.
It is applicable to site-applied materials intended to be used under various conditions for the transport and storage of water intended for human consumption, including raw water used for the production of water intended for human consumption. It covers the extraction by water of substances from these materials after their application on site.
The document is applicable to materials whose physical or chemical properties alter during or after on-site application, such as coatings, paints, and adhesives. In addition, some site-applied materials that do not change in such a manner, e.g. greases or lubricants, are also included.

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This document specifies the dimensional, physical-chemical, design, hydraulic, mechanical and acoustic characteristics of mechanical disconnectors, direct actuated Family G, type A.
This document is applicable to mechanical disconnectors in nominal sizes DN 8 up to DN 250, intended to prevent the return of water having lost its original sanitary and drinking qualities (called “polluted water” in this document), into the potable water distribution system whenever the pressure of the latter is temporarily lower than in the polluted circuit.
This document covers the mechanical disconnector of PN 10 that are capable of working without modification or adjustment:
- at any pressure up to 1,0 MPa (10 bar);
- with any pressure variation up to 1,0 MPa (10 bar);
- in permanent duty at a limit temperature of 65 °C and 90 °C for 1 h maximum.
It specifies also the test methods and requirements for verifying these characteristics, the marking and the presentation at delivery.

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This document specifies a method for the enumeration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in water. The
method is based on the growth of target organisms in a liquid medium and calculation of the most
probable number (MPN) of organisms by reference to MPN tables.
This document is applicable to a range of types of water. For example, hospital waters, drinking water
and non‐carbonated bottled waters intended for human consumption, groundwater, swimming pool
and spa pool waters including those containing high background counts of heterotrophic bacteria.
This document does not apply to carbonated bottled waters, flavoured bottle waters, cooling tower
waters or marine waters, for which the method has not been validated. These waters are, therefore,
outside the scope of this document. Laboratories can employ the method presented in this document
for these matrices by undertaking appropriate validation of performance of this method prior to use.
The test is based on a bacterial enzyme detection technology that signals the presence of P. aeruginosa
through the hydrolysis of a 7‐amino‐4‐methylcoumarin aminopeptidase substrate present in a special
reagent. P. aeruginosa cells rapidly grow and reproduce using the rich supply of amino acids, vitamins
and other nutrients present in the reagent. Actively growing strains of P. aeruginosa have an enzyme
that cleaves the 7‐amido‐coumarin aminopeptidase substrate releasing a product which fluoresces
under ultraviolet (UV) light. The test described in this document provides a confirmed result within
24 h with no requirement for further confirmation of positive wells.

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This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and for the determination of dissolved and particular bound nitrogen (TNb) in the form of free ammonia, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate and organic compounds capable of conversion to nitrogen oxides under the oxidative conditions described. The procedure is carried out instrumentally.
NOTE 1 Generally the method can be applied for the determination of total carbon (TC) and total inorganic carbon (TIC) (see Annex A in the Outline).
The method is applicable for water (e.g. drinking water, raw water, ground water, surface water, sea water or waste water) containing suspended material of ≤ 100 μm of particle size (convention). Reduce particles of > 100 μm of size to pieces of particle size of ≤ 100 μm before injection. The method allows a determination of TOC/DOC ≥ 1 mg/l C and TNb ≥ 1 mg/l N.
NOTE 2 The determination of carbon concentrations > 0,3 mg/l to 1 mg/l is only applicable in special cases, for example drinking water, measured by highly sensitive instruments. Cyanide, cyanate and particles of elemental carbon (soot), when present in the sample, can be determined together with the organic carbon. Volatile or purgeable organic carbon (VOC, POC) is not determined by this method. Dissolved nitrogen gas is not determined by this method. Generally, the working range is restricted by instrument dependant conditions (e.g. injection volume). Higher concentrations may be determined after appropriate dilution.

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This European standard describes a test method for laboratory evaluation of possible adverse effects of water treatment membranes on drinking water quality.
In principle it is applicable to microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis modules for use in the treatment of public water supplies and of water inside buildings.
NOTE   Such devices can vary considerably in design and operation and hence some modification of the procedures may be required.
Evaluation of the efficiency of the membrane filter in removing contaminants from the treated water is not included.

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This document specifies various calibration strategies for physicochemical and chemical analytical methods and specifies the calculation of analytical results. It defines the general context for linear calibration so that individual standards dealing with analytical methods for the examination of water quality can make reference to it.

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This document provides guidelines for product water quality of seawater reverse osmosis (RO) desalination that is used for municipal water supply. It specifies water quality parameters and ranges, monitoring frequency and test methods to ensure the compatibility of the product water with the pipelines.

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This document specifies a method for determining the toxicity of environmental
samples on growth, fertility and reproduction of Caenorhabditis elegans. The method applies
to contaminated whole fresh water sediment (maximum salinity 5 ‰), soil and waste, as well
as to pore water, elutriates and aqueous extracts that were obtained from contaminated
sediment, soil and waste.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the dissolved fraction of selected active pharmaceutical ingredients and transformation products, as well as other organic substances (see Table 1 of the document) in drinking water, ground water, surface water and treated waste water.
The lower application range of this method can vary depending on the sensitivity of the equipment used and the matrix of the sample. For most compounds to which this document applies, the range is ≥ 0,025 μg/l for drinking water, ground water and surface water, and ≥ 0,050 μg/l for treated waste water.
The method can be used to determine further organic substances or in other types of water (e.g. process water) provided that accuracy has been tested and verified for each case, and that storage conditions of both samples and reference solutions have been validated.

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This document specifies conditions for the determination of 90Sr and 89Sr activity concentration in
samples of environmental water using liquid scintillation counting (LSC) or proportional counting (PC).
The method is applicable to test samples of drinking water, rainwater, surface and ground water,
marine water, as well as cooling water, industrial water, domestic, and industrial wastewater after
proper sampling and handling, and test sample preparation. Filtration of the test sample and a chemical
separation are required to separate and purify strontium from a test portion of the sample.
The detection limit depends on the sample volume, the instrument used, the sample count time, the
background count rate, the detection efficiency and the chemical yield. The method described in this
document, using currently available LSC counters, has a detection limit of approximately 10 mBq l−1
and 2 mBq l−1 for 89Sr and 90Sr, respectively, which is lower than the WHO criteria for safe consumption
of drinking water (100 Bq·l−1 for 89Sr and 10 Bq·l−1 for 90Sr)[3]. These values can be achieved with a
counting time of 1 000 min for a sample volume of 2 l.
The methods described in this document are applicable in the event of an emergency situation.
When fallout occurs following a nuclear accident, the contribution of 89Sr to the total amount of
radioactive strontium is not negligible. This document provides test methods to determine the activity
concentration of 90Sr in presence of 89Sr.
The analysis of 90Sr and 89Sr adsorbed to suspended matter is not covered by this method.
It is the user’s responsibility to ensure the validity of this test method selected for the water samples
tested.

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This document specifies a method for the physical pre-treatment and conditioning of water samples
and the determination of the activity concentration of various radionuclides emitting gamma-rays with
energies between 40 keV and 2 MeV, by gamma‑ray spectrometry according to the generic test method
described in ISO 20042.
The method is applicable to test samples of drinking water, rainwater, surface and ground water as well
as cooling water, industrial water, domestic and industrial wastewater after proper sampling, sample
handling, and test sample preparation (filtration when necessary and taking into account the amount
of dissolved material in the water). This method is only applicable to homogeneous samples or samples
which are homogeneous via timely filtration.
The lowest limit that can be measured without concentration of the sample or by using only passive
shield of the detection system is about 5·10-2 Bq/l for e.g. 137Cs1). The upper limit of the activity
corresponds to a dead time of 10 %. Higher dead times may be used but evidence of the accuracy of the
dead-time correction is required.
Depending on different factors, such as the energy of the gamma-rays, the emission probability per
nuclear disintegration, the size and geometry of the sample and the detector, the shielding, the counting
time and other experimental parameters, the sample may require to be concentrated by evaporation
if activities below 5·10-2 Bq/l need to be measured. However, volatile radionuclides (e.g. radon and
radioiodine) can be lost during the source preparation.
This method is suitable for application in emergency situations.

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This European Standard specifies design principles and performance requirements for tertiary clarification (receiving effluent from secondary treatment) by physical filtration plant at wastewater treatment plants serving more than 50 PT.
NOTE 1     Ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis are not covered within the scope of this standard as they are not considered to be used for tertiary clarification.
NOTE 2     Soil filtration is not covered in this standard.
NOTE 3     Activated carbon filtration is excluded from the scope of this standard as it is not considered to be a form of mechanical filtration.

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This document specifies a method for the measurement of 14C activity concentration in all types of
water samples by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) either directly on the test sample or following a
chemical separation.
The method is applicable to test samples of supply/drinking water, rainwater, surface and ground water,
marine water, as well as cooling water, industrial water, domestic, and industrial wastewater.
The detection limit depends on the sample volume, the instrument used, the sample counting time, the
background count rate, the detection efficiency and the chemical recovery. The method described in
this document, using currently available liquid scintillation counters and suitable technical conditions,
has a detection limit as low as 1 Bq∙l−1, which is lower than the WHO criteria for safe consumption of
drinking water (100 Bq·l-1). 14C activity concentrations can be measured up to 106 Bq∙l-1 without any
sample dilution.
It is the user’s responsibility to ensure the validity of this test method for the water samples tested.

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This document provides guidance for assessing the efficiency and related metrics of fish passage solutions using telemetry methods that allow fish approaching an impediment to be monitored.
It provides recommendations and requirements for equipment, study design, data analysis and reporting. A selected literature with references in support of this standard is given in the Bibliography section.

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This document specifies conditions for the determination of 90Sr and 89Sr activity concentration in samples of environmental water using liquid scintillation counting (LSC) or proportional counting (PC). The method is applicable to test samples of drinking water, rainwater, surface and ground water, marine water, as well as cooling water, industrial water, domestic, and industrial wastewater after proper sampling and handling, and test sample preparation. Filtration of the test sample and a chemical separation are required to separate and purify strontium from a test portion of the sample. The detection limit depends on the sample volume, the instrument used, the sample count time, the background count rate, the detection efficiency and the chemical yield. The method described in this document, using currently available LSC counters, has a detection limit of approximately 10 mBq l−1 and 2 mBq l−1 for 89Sr and 90Sr, respectively, which is lower than the WHO criteria for safe consumption of drinking water (100 Bq·l−1 for 89Sr and 10 Bq·l−1 for 90Sr)[3]. These values can be achieved with a counting time of 1 000 min for a sample volume of 2 l. The methods described in this document are applicable in the event of an emergency situation. When fallout occurs following a nuclear accident, the contribution of 89Sr to the total amount of radioactive strontium is not negligible. This document provides test methods to determine the activity concentration of 90Sr in presence of 89Sr. The analysis of 90Sr and 89Sr adsorbed to suspended matter is not covered by this method. It is the user’s responsibility to ensure the validity of this test method selected for the water samples tested.

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This document specifies a method for the measurement of 210Pb in all types of waters by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The method is applicable to test samples of supply/drinking water, rainwater, surface and ground water, as well as cooling water, industrial water, domestic, and industrial wastewater after proper sampling and handling, and test sample preparation. Filtration of the test sample is necessary. Lead‑210 activity concentration in the environment can vary and usually ranges from 2 mBq l-1 to 300 mBq l-1 [27][28]. Using currently available liquid scintillation counters, the limit of detection of this method for 210Pb is generally of the order of 20 mBq l-1 to 50 mBq l-1, which is lower than the WHO criteria for safe consumption of drinking water (100 mBq l−1).[4][6] These values can be achieved with a counting time between 180 min and 720 min for a sample volume from 0,5 l to 1,5 l. Higher activity concentrations can be measured by either diluting the sample or using smaller sample aliquots or both. The method presented in this document is not intended for the determination of an ultra-trace amount of 210Pb. The range of application depends on the amount of dissolved material in the water and on the performance characteristics of the measurement equipment (background count rate and counting efficiency). The method described in this document is applicable to an emergency situation. The analysis of Pb adsorbed to suspended matter is not covered by this method. It is the user’s responsibility to ensure the validity of this test method for the water samples tested.

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This standard specifies a method for the measurement of iron-55 and nickel-63 (55Fe and 63Ni)in all types of waters by liquid scintillation counting (LSC).
The detection limit depends on the sample volume and the instrument used. The test method described in this standard is based on currently available LSC counters.

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This document specifies a method for the quantification of twelve microcystin variants (microcystin-LR, -LA, -YR, -RR, -LY, -WR, -HtyR, -HilR, -LW, -LF, [Dha7]-microcystin-LR, and [Dha7]-microcystin-RR) in drinking water and freshwater samples between 0,05 µg/l to 1,6 µg/l. The method can be used to determine further microcystins, provided that analytical conditions for chromatography and mass spectrometric detection has been tested and validated for each microcystin. Samples are analysed by LC-MS/MS using internal standard calibration. This method is performance based. The laboratory is permitted to modify the method, e.g. increasing direct flow injection volume for low interference samples or diluting the samples to increase the upper working range limit, provided that all performance criteria in this method are met. Detection of microcystins by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) as an alternative for tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is described in Annex A. An alternative automated sample preparation method based on on-line solid phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography is described in Annex B. When instrumental sensitivity is not sufficient to reach the method detection limits by direct flow injection, a solid phase extraction clean-up and concentration step is described in Annex C.

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This document provides guidelines for performance evaluation methods of water reclamation systems using membrane technologies. This document provides guidance in ensuring treated wastewater quality levels at the point of exit from the membrane filtration processes. It also provides potential methods for evaluating the environmental and economic performance of membrane filtration processes in water reuse. This document helps plant designers, operators and end users to effectively design and operate the membrane-based water reclamation systems.

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This document specifies a method for the physical pre-treatment and conditioning of water samples and the determination of the activity concentration of various radionuclides emitting gamma-rays with energies between 40 keV and 2 MeV, by gamma‑ray spectrometry according to the generic test method described in ISO 20042. The method is applicable to test samples of drinking water, rainwater, surface and ground water as well as cooling water, industrial water, domestic and industrial wastewater after proper sampling, sample handling, and test sample preparation (filtration when necessary and taking into account the amount of dissolved material in the water). This method is only applicable to homogeneous samples or samples which are homogeneous via timely filtration. The lowest limit that can be measured without concentration of the sample or by using only passive shield of the detection system is about 5·10-2 Bq/l for e.g. 137Cs.1 The upper limit of the activity corresponds to a dead time of 10 %. Higher dead times may be used but evidence of the accuracy of the dead-time correction is required. Depending on different factors, such as the energy of the gamma-rays, the emission probability per nuclear disintegration, the size and geometry of the sample and the detector, the shielding, the counting time and other experimental parameters, the sample may require to be concentrated by evaporation if activities below 5·10-2 Bq/l need to be measured. However, volatile radionuclides (e.g. radon and radioiodine) can be lost during the source preparation. This method is suitable for application in emergency situations.  1The sample geometry: 3l Marinelli beaker; detector: GE HP N relative efficiency 55 % ; counting time: 18h.

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This document provides guidelines on methods for evaluating the performance of ion exchange and electrodialysis for water reuse including ion exchange resin and ion exchange membrane.

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This document provides a performance evaluation method of treatment technology using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for water reuse treatment. It introduces a system of evaluating water quality to validate AOP performance through typical parameters such as the concentration of hydroxyl radicals.

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This document provides a guideline for the application of various available methods of treated wastewater (TWW) disinfection for an effective inactivation or removal of pathogens from TWW, which is intended for irrigation purposes. This document deals with: —   chemical and physical technologies, principles of operation, and establishment of effective doses to be applied, possible interferences, and technical guidance for design and monitoring; —   comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of various disinfection methods suitable for TWW; —   potential environmental effects of the disinfection methodologies and ways to minimize those impacts; —   disinfection at different locations in the TWW use system, including in the wastewater treatment plant, within the distribution system and at the point of use.

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This European Standard is applicable to calcium carbonate used for treatment of water intended for human consumption. It describes the characteristics of calcium carbonate and specifies the requirements and the corresponding test methods for calcium carbonate. It gives information on its use in water treatment.

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This document defines terms used in certain fields of water quality characterization.

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This document specifies a method for the measurement of 14C activity concentration in all types of water samples by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) either directly on the test sample or following a chemical separation. The method is applicable to test samples of supply/drinking water, rainwater, surface and ground water, marine water, as well as cooling water, industrial water, domestic, and industrial wastewater. The detection limit depends on the sample volume, the instrument used, the sample counting time, the background count rate, the detection efficiency and the chemical recovery. The method described in this document, using currently available liquid scintillation counters and suitable technical conditions, has a detection limit as low as 1 Bq∙l−1, which is lower than the WHO criteria for safe consumption of drinking water (100 Bq·l-1). 14C activity concentrations can be measured up to 106 Bq∙l-1 without any sample dilution. It is the user’s responsibility to ensure the validity of this test method for the water samples tested.

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This document covers the system's components needed for the use of treated wastewater (TWW) for irrigation. Emphasis is placed on irrigation methods, mainly drip irrigation, as this method represents an efficient method of irrigation and water saving, while reducing the pollution of the crops. Despite the fact that water quality and filtration of treated wastewater (herein TWW) using drip irrigation are critical, open irrigation systems are more popular and are frequently used for irrigation with TWW and therefore are covered in this document. This document covers issues related to the main components of a TWW irrigation project, including the following: —   pumping stations; —   storage reservoirs; —   treatment facilities (for irrigation purposes); —   filtration and disinfection; —   distribution pipeline networks; —   water application devices: irrigation system components and treatment. This document is not intended to be used for certification purposes.

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This document provides recommendations regarding: —   monitoring the quality of treated wastewater (TWW) for irrigation; —   monitoring irrigated plants; —   monitoring the soil with regard to salinity; —   monitoring natural water sources in neighbouring environments; —   monitoring the quality of water in storage reservoirs. It puts emphasis on sampling methods and their frequency. Regarding the methods of analysis, this document refers to standard methods or, where not available, to other bibliographical references. NOTE      In cases where a monitoring plan already exists, these recommendations can be integrated into this plan. This is notably the case when a broader approach of risk management is implemented, such as the water safety plans (serving as a model for sanitation safety plans) developed by WHO[16].

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This document specifies a test method for the determination of iron-55 (55Fe) activity concentration in samples of all types of water using liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Using currently available liquid scintillation counters, this test method can measure the 55Fe activity concentrations in the range from the limit of detection up to 120 mBq l-1. These values can be achieved with a counting time between 7 200 s and 10 800 s for a sample volume from 0,5 l to 1,5 l. Higher activity concentrations can be measured by either diluting the sample or using smaller sample aliquots or both. NOTE     These performance indicators are wholly dependent on the measurement regimes in individual laboratories; in particular, the detection limits are influenced by amount of stable iron present. The range of application depends on the amount of dissolved material in the water and on the performance characteristics of the measurement equipment (background count rate and counting efficiency). It is the laboratory’s responsibility to ensure the suitability of this test method for the water samples tested.

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This document provides guidelines for performance evaluation methods of UV disinfection for full scale water reuse systems. It deals with the methods of measurement of typical parameters which indicate performance of UV disinfection systems.

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This document provides examples of good practices in stormwater management related to ISOÂ 24536Â and information on standards and guidelines used in various countries.

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This Technical Specification describes an approach for the validation of physico-chemical analytical methods for environmental matrices.
The guidance in this document addresses two different validation approaches, in increasing order of complexity. These are:
a)   method development and validation at the level of single laboratories (intra-laboratory validation);
b)   method validation at the level of several laboratories (between-laboratory or inter-laboratory validation), with a focus on methods that are sufficiently mature and robust to be applied not only by a few expert laboratories but by laboratories operating at the routine level.
The concept of these two approaches is strictly hierarchical, i.e. a method shall fulfil all criteria of the first level before it can enter the validation protocol of the second level.
This Technical Specification is applicable to the validation of a broad range of quantitative physico-chemical analytical methods for the analysis of water (including surface water, groundwater, waste water, and sediment). Analytical methods for other environmental matrices, like soil, sludge, waste, and biota can be validated in the same way. It is intended either for analytical methods aiming at substances that have recently become of interest or for test methods applying recently developed technologies.
The minimal requirements that are indispensable for the characterization of the fitness for purpose of an analytical method are: selectivity, precision, bias and measurement uncertainty. The aim of validation is to prove that these requirements are met.

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This document provides a methodology for undertaking a water loss investigation and establishing general principles for water loss management in drinking water distribution networks in order to improve the sustainability of drinking water utilities and protect the environment by saving water, energy and use of chemicals. This document establishes a procedure to estimate water loss components through water balance calculations and to define general principles of water loss management. This document deals with the preparation of a water loss management plan for water loss reduction and management projects but does not cover its execution. This document does not cover bulk drinking water supply systems, but can relate to pumping, storage and transmission within the drinking water distribution network. This document can be used analogously for non-public supply systems, raw water and industrial water systems. This document is intended for drinking water utilities and other stakeholders.

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This document defines a methodology for determining and assessing the energy efficiency of Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP). The methodology aims at describing, in a systematic way, the various steps required to establish the Water Treatment Energy Index (WTEI) of a particular WWTP.
The methodology includes the classification of WWTPs in different types, identification of different stages of treatment, identification of key performance indicators (KPIs), overview of existing energy monitoring standards and the detailed description of the methodology, including a step by step guideline of how to apply and implement it.
The methodology is divided in 2 sub-methods that should be selected and followed according to the following goals:
-   The Rapid Audit (RA) method allows for a quick estimation of the water treatment energy index (WTEI) based on existing information such as historical data pertaining to energy use records along with influent and effluent quality values. The aim of this methodology is to provide a WWTP energy benchmark, a rapid tool to identify energy efficiencies and inefficiencies so further actions can be planned, as well as to evaluate the impact of WWTP retrofitting.
The Rapid Audit methodology is detailed step by step in Clause 3 of this TR and can be used as a standalone document.
-   The Decision Support (DS) method requires intensive monitoring across a WWTP of energy usage and water quality parameters that provides an accurate and detailed calculation of WTEI for each stage as well as its overall value for the plant. The goal of this assessment is to serve as a diagnosis of the functions/equipment in a plant that may lead to poor energy efficiency performance.
The Decision Support methodology is detailed step by step in Clause 4 of this TR and can be used as a standalone document.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of certain cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) in environmental water samples with low density polyethylene (LDPE) as a preservative and subsequent liquid-liquid extraction with hexane containing 13C-labeled cVMS as internal standards. The extract is then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). NOTE Using the 13C-labeled, chemically identical substances as internal standards with the same properties as the corresponding analytes, minimizes possible substance-specific discrimination in calibrations. Since these substances are least soluble in water, they are introduced via the extraction solvent hexane into the system.

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This document provides guidelines for the planning and design of a reverse osmosis (RO) treatment system of municipal wastewater. This document is applicable to practitioners and authorities who intend to implement principles and decisions on RO treatment of municipal wastewater in a safe, reliable and sustainable manner. This document addresses RO treatment systems of municipal wastewater in their entirety and is applicable to any RO treatment system component. This document provides: — standard terms and definitions; — a description of the system components of an RO treatment system of municipal wastewater; — design principles of an RO treatment system of municipal wastewater; — statements on the feed water quality and technical requirements of an RO treatment system; — guidance for operation and maintenance of an RO treatment system; — specific aspects for consideration and emergency response. Design parameters and regulatory values of an RO treatment system of municipal wastewater are out of the scope of this document.

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This document contains details on the sampling of domestic and industrial waste water, i.e. the design of sampling programmes and techniques for the collection of samples. It covers waste water in all its forms, i.e. industrial waste water, radioactive waste water, cooling water, raw and treated domestic waste water.
It deals with various sampling techniques used and the rules to be applied so as to ensure the samples are representative.
Sampling of accidental spillages is not included, although the methods described in certain cases may also be applicable to spillages.

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This document specifies a method for the measurement of 210Po in all types of waters by alpha
spectrometry.
The method is applicable to test samples of supply/drinking water, rainwater, surface and ground
water, marine water, as well as cooling water, industrial water, domestic, and industrial wastewater
after proper sampling and handling, and test sample preparation. Filtration of the test sample may be
required.
The detection limit depends on the sample volume, the instrument used, the counting time, the
background count rate, the detection efficiency and the chemical yield. The method described in
this document, using currently available alpha spectrometry apparatus, has a detection limit of
approximately 5 mBq l−1, which is lower than the WHO criteria for safe consumption of drinking water
(100 mBq l−1). This value can be achieved with a counting time of 24 h for a sample volume of 500 ml.
The method described in this document is also applicable in an emergency situation.
The analysis of 210Po adsorbed to suspended matter in the sample is not covered by this method.
If suspended material has to be removed or analysed, filtration using a 0,45 μm filter is recommended.
The analysis of the insoluble fraction requires a mineralization step that is not covered by this document
[13]. In this case, the measurement is made on the different phases obtained. The final activity is the
sum of all the measured activity concentrations.
It is the user’s responsibility to ensure the validity of this test method for the water samples tested.

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This standard describes the requirements for rapid testing of water samples under emergency situations in laboratories:
- taking into account a special context for analyses, e.g. an unknown and unusual contamination;
- using or adapting if possible radioactivity measurements methods used in routine to get a result
rapidly or applying specific rapid methods previously tested by the laboratory, e.g. for 89Sr determination ;
- preparing the laboratory to analyse a large number of potentially contaminated samples.
The focus thereby is on cases where rapid radioactivity test methods are applied for all kind of waters. The first steps of the analytical strategy is often based on gross alpha and gross beta as screening methods (adaptation of ISO 10704 and ISO 11704) and gamma spectrometry (adaptation of ISO 10703). Then if necessary, specific radionuclides standards are adapted and applied (for example, Strontium 90 measurement following ISO 13160).
This guideline refers to a number of ISO standards. If appropriate, it will also refer to national or other
publically available standards.
Screening techniques that can be carried out on site are not part of this guide.

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This document is focused on the structural features of rivers, on geomorphological and hydrological processes, and on river continuity. It provides guidance on the features and processes to be taken into account when characterizing and assessing the hydromorphology of rivers. It is based on methods developed, tested, and compared in Europe. Its main aim is to improve the comparability of hydromorphological assessment methods, data processing and interpretation. Although it has particular importance for the WFD by providing guidance on assessing hydromorphological quality, it has considerably wider scope for other applications. In addition, while recognizing the important influence of hydromorphology on plant and animal ecology, no attempt is made to provide guidance in this area, but where the biota have an important influence on hydromorphology these influences are included.
NOTE   A case study illustrating the application of this standard is given in Gurnell and Grabowski[1].

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This document sets out the general principles for, and provides guidance on, the design of sampling programmes and sampling techniques for all aspects of sampling of water (including waste waters, sludges, effluents, suspended solids and sediments). It does not include detailed instructions for specific sampling situations, which are covered in the various other parts of ISO 5667 and in ISO 19458.

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