This document specifies tests for the qualification of welding procedure specifications applicable to upset (resistance butt) welding and flash welding of metallic materials, e.g. with solid, tubular, flat or circular cross-section. Its basic principles can also be applied to other resistance welding processes when this is stated in the specification. This document defines the conditions for carrying out tests and the limits of validity of a qualified welding procedure for all the practical welding operations that it covers. It covers the following resistance welding processes, as defined in ISO 4063: —   24 flash welding, using direct current or alternating current with various movement sequences, constant flashing and pulsed flashing; —   25 resistance upset welding, using direct current or alternating current with various pressure sequences.

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This document specifies the tests which can be used for qualification of welding procedure specifications for spot, seam, and projection welding processes. NOTE      The procedures are written for embossed projection welding. They can be adapted for solid projections as well, e.g. nut welding, stud welding. cross wire welding. This document defines the conditions for carrying out tests and the limits of validity of a qualified welding procedure for all practical welding operations covered by this document. It covers the following resistance welding processes, as defined in ISO 4063: —   21 – resistance spot welding; —   211 – indirect spot welding; —   212 – direct spot welding; —   22 – resistance seam welding; —   221 – lap seam welding; —   222 – mash seam welding; —   223 – Prep-lap seam welding; —   224 – Wire seam welding; —   225 – foil butt-seam welding; —   226 – seam welding with strip; —   23 – projection welding; —   231 – indirect projection welding; —   232 – direct projection welding.

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This document specifies the International Standards, including clauses and subclauses, with which conformity to the quality requirements of ISO 3834-2, ISO 3834-3 or ISOÂ 3834-4 can be claimed. NOTEÂ Â Â Â Â For brazing, see ISO 22688.

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This document specifies a general outline of the ISO 3834 series and criteria to be taken into account for
the selection of the appropriate level of quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials,
among the three levels specified in ISO 3834-2, ISO 3834-3 and ISO 3834-4.
It is applicable to manufacturing, both in workshops and at field installation sites.
This document does not specify requirements for a total quality management system (QMS). However,
Clause 6 identifies QMS elements where their inclusion complements the ISO 3834 series.

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This document specifies a general outline of the ISO 3834 series and criteria to be taken into account for the selection of the appropriate level of quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials, among the three levels specified in ISO 3834-2, ISO 3834-3 and ISO 3834-4. It is applicable to manufacturing, both in workshops and at field installation sites. This document does not specify requirements for a total quality management system (QMS). However, Clause 6 identifies QMS elements where their inclusion complements the ISO 3834 series.

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This Standard defines the technical requirements and quality assurance provisions for the manufacture and verification of high-reliability electronic circuits based on surface mounted device (SMD) and mixed technology.
The Standard defines acceptance and rejection criteria for high-reliability manufacture of surface-mount and mixed-technology circuit assemblies intended to withstand normal terrestrial conditions and the vibrational g loads and environment imposed by space flight.
The proper tools, correct materials, design and workmanship are covered by this document. Workmanship standards are included to permit discrimination between proper and improper work.
The assembly of leaded devices to through-hole terminations and general soldering principles are covered in ECSS-Q-ST-70-08.
Requirements related to printed circuit boards are contained in ECSS-Q-ST-70 10, ECSS-Q-ST-70-11 and ECSS-Q-ST-70-12 . The mounting and supporting of devices, terminals and conductors prescribed herein applies to assemblies at PCB level designed to continuously operate over the mission within the temperature limits of -55 C to +85 C.
For temperatures outside this normal range, special design, verification and qualification testing is performed to ensure the necessary environmental survival capability.
Special thermal heat sinks are applied to devices having high thermal dissipation (e.g. junction temperatures of 110 C, power transistors) in order to ensure that solder joints do not exceed 85 C.
Verification of SMD assembly processes is made on test vehicles (surface mount verification samples). Temperature cycling ensures the operational lifetime for spacecraft. However, mechanical testing only indicates SMD reliability as it is unlikely that the test vehicle represents every flight configuration.
This Standard does not cover the qualification and acceptance of the EQM and FM equipment with surface-mount and mixed-technology.
The qualification and acceptance tests of equipment manufactured in accordance with this Standard are covered by ECSS-E-ST-10-03.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project, in accordance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This Standard defines the technical requirements and quality assurance provisions for the manufacture and verification of manually-soldered, high-reliability electrical connections. The Standard defines acceptance and rejection criteria for high reliability manufacture of manually-soldered electrical connections intended to withstand normal terrestrial conditions and the vibrational g-loads and environment imposed by space flight. The proper tools, correct materials, design and workmanship are covered by this document. Workmanship standards are included to permit discrimination between proper and improper work. The assembly of surface-mount devices is covered in ECSS-Q-ST-70-38. Requirements related to printed circuit boards are contained in ECSS-Q-ST-70-10 and ECSS-Q-ST-70-11. Verification of manual soldering assemblies which are not described in this standard are performed by vibration and thermal cycling testing. The requirements for verification are given in this Standard. This standard does not cover the qualification and acceptance of EQM and FM equipment with hand soldered connections. The qualification and acceptance tests of equipment manufactured in accordance with this Standard are covered by ECSS-E-ST-10-03. The mounting and supporting of components, terminals and conductors prescribed herein applies to assemblies designed to operate within the temperature limits of -55 °C to +85 °C. For temperatures outside this normal range, special design, verification and qualification testing is performed to ensure the necessary environmental survival capability. Special thermal heat sinks are applied to devices having high thermal dissipation (e.g. junction temperatures of 110 °C, power transistors) in order to ensure that solder joints do not exceed 85 °C. This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This specification defines the basic requirements for the verification and approval of automatic machine wave soldering for use in spacecraft hardware. The process requirements for wave soldering of double‐sided and multilayer boards are also defined.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS‐S‐ST‐00.

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This document specifies the geometries and dimensions of projections for embossed projection welding.
Tools to make the projections are also included in Annex B.
The projections are used on hot-rolled, cold-rolled, uncoated and coated steels, stainless steels and
nickel alloys for conventional welding quality up to 3 mm thickness, as single projections, in multiples
or as a group of multiples.
Any solid projections are not included in this document.

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This part of IEC 60974 is applicable to WELDING CURRENT RETURN CLAMPS for arc welding processes, designed to make an electrical connection to the workpiece without using tools. This document is not applicable to WELDING CURRENT RETURN CLAMPS for underwater welding and plasma cutting. This document specifies safety and performance requirements of WELDING CURRENT RETURN CLAMPS. This document does not specify requirements for welding cables.

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This part of IEC 60974 is applicable to ELECTRODE HOLDERS for manual metal arc welding with
electrodes up to 10 mm in diameter.
It is not applicable to ELECTRODE HOLDERS for underwater welding.
This document specifies safety and performance requirements of ELECTRODE HOLDERS.

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IEC 60974-1:2021 is available as IEC 60974-1:2021 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 60974-1:2021 is applicable to power sources for arc welding and allied processes designed for industrial and professional use, and supplied by a voltage not exceeding 1 000 V, battery supplied or driven by mechanical means. This document specifies safety and performance requirements of welding power sources and plasma cutting systems. This sixth edition cancels and replaces the fifth edition published in 2017 and Amendment 1:2019. This edition constitutes a technical revision. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- Table 1 with an alphabetical cross-reference listing of terms added;
- clearance and creepage distance reference document changed to IEC 60664-1:2020;
- 6.1.2 and 6.1.3 modified to follow IEC 60664-1 basic insulation dimensioning for mains supply with rationalized voltages;
- abnormal capacitor test of 6.2.2 moved to new Subclause 9.5;
- 6.2.5 and 6.3.6 modified to use touch current measuring network weighted for letgo-immobilization and supply voltage tolerance requirement added;
- 16.3 new structure and accuracy requirement for displayed voltage value ;
- Annex A changed to normative and Table A.2 and Table A.3 added;
- Annex L editorial update to standardized symbols;
- redraft of efficiency and idle state power measurement in Annex M based on IEC 62301:2011;
- Annex N measurement network weighted for letgo-immobilization added.

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This document specifies the geometries and dimensions of projections for embossed projection welding. Tools to make the projections are also included in Annex B. The projections are used on hot-rolled, cold-rolled, uncoated and coated steels, stainless steels and nickel alloys for conventional welding quality up to 3 mm thickness, as single projections, in multiples or as a group of multiples. Any solid projections are not included in this document.

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This document establishes a European grouping system for materials for welding purposes, classified
in accordance with the grouping system of ISO/TR 15608.
It is also applicable for other purposes such as heat treatment, forming and non-destructive testing.
This document covers grouping systems for the following standardized materials:
a) steel;
b) aluminium and its alloys;
c) copper and its alloys;
d) cast irons;
e) nickel and nickel alloys.
For materials that are not assigned to a group in this document, the criteria of ISO/TR 15608 apply.

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This document provides quality levels for imperfections in thermoplastics welded joints. It applies to material thickness above 2,0 mm.
Three quality levels are given in order to permit application for a wide range of welded fabrication. They are designated by symbols B, C and D, where B is the most stringent. The quality levels refer to production quality and not to the fitness-for-purpose (see 3.2) of the manufactured product.
This document applies to the following thermoplastic materials in Table 1:
Table 1 - Thermoplastic materials
Abbreviation   Material description
ABS   Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene plastic
ECTFE   Ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer
FEP   Fluorinated ethylene propylene
PA-U        Unplasticized Polyamide
PB   Polybutylene
PE   Polyethylene
PFA   Perfluoroalkoxy
PP-B   Polypropylene block copolymer
PP-H   Polypropylene homopolymer
PP-R   Polypropylene random copolymer
PVC-C   Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
PVC-U   Unplasticised polyvinyl chloride (rigid PVC)
PVDF   Polyvinylidene fluoride
and to the following welding processes:
-   heated tool welding;
-   electrofusion welding;
-   hot gas welding using filler rod only;
-   extrusion welding;
-   solvent welding of pipes.

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This document gives specifications for single- and double-conductor secondary connection cables used
for resistance welding and allied processes. These specifications include requirements for electrical,
mechanical and cooling characteristics of the cables and their test procedures.

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This document defines comprehensive quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials both in workshops and at field installation sites.

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This document defines comprehensive quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials
both in workshops and at field installation sites.

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This document defines elementary quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials both
in workshops and at field installation sites.

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This European Standard specifies requirements for the;
-   approval of training facilities, testing and maintaining the skills of aluminothermic welders and welding trainers. It applies to those aluminothermic welding processes compliant with the requirements of EN 14730-1. It requires that the system for training and testing of welders shall be approved by the railway authority.
-   approval of aluminothermic welding contractors. It applies to those contractors using aluminothermic welding processes compliant with the requirements of EN 14730-1 and who employ welders in the possession of a valid permit to weld as defined in section 4 of this standard.
-   acceptance of the final aluminothermic weld inspections and aluminothermic weld inspectors approved by the railway authority. It does not cover any previous weld inspections by the welder or others.
The standard also applies to aluminothermic welds produced on Vignole railway rail 46 kg/m and above, as contained in EN 13674-1.

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IEC 60974-8:2021 is available as IEC 60974-8:2021 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 60974-8:2021 specifies safety and performance requirements for gas consoles intended to be used with combustible gases or oxygen. These gas consoles are designed to supply gases for use in arc welding, plasma cutting, gouging and allied processes in non-explosive atmospheres. The gas console can be external or internal to the power source enclosure. In the latter case, the power source shall meet the requirements of both IEC 60974-1 and this document. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition, published in 2009. This edition constitutes a technical revision. The significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition are the following:
- changes induced by the publication of IEC 60974-1:2017;
- requirements for the rating plate as in IEC 60974-1:2017, Clause 15;
- requirements for the instructions in 13.2.
This part of IEC 60974 is to be used in conjunction with IEC 60974-1.

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This document specifies the requirements for the test methods for joint of micro-joining of 2G HTS to
fulfil the requirements of ISO 17279-1 and ISO 17279-2.
This document specifies test methods for determining the capability of joints for the production of the
specified quality. It defines specific test requirements, but does not assign those requirements to any
specific product group.

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This document establishes a vocabulary of terms and definitions for resistance spot welding, projection
welding and seam welding.
NOTE In addition to terms used in English and French, two of the three official ISO languages, this document
gives the equivalent terms in German; these are published under the responsibility of the member body for
Germany (DIN). However, only the terms and definitions given in the official languages can be considered as ISO
terms and definitions.

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IEC 60974-11:2021 is available as IEC 60974-11:2021 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 60974-11:2021 is applicable to electrode holders for manual metal arc welding with electrodes up to 10 mm in diameter. It is not applicable to electrode holders for underwater welding. This document specifies safety and performance requirements of electrode holders. This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition, published in 2010. This edition constitutes a technical revision. The significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition are the following:
- Modify 3.6 type A to category A;
- Modify 3.7 type B to category B;
- Modify 8.1 to clarify reference to IEC 60529;
- Modification of 10.1 for clarification purposes;
- Added Bibliography.
This part of IEC 60974 is to be used in conjunction with IEC 60974-1.

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IEC 60974-13:2021 is available as IEC 60974-13:2021 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 60974-13:2021 is applicable to welding current return clamps for arc welding processes, designed to make an electrical connection to the workpiece without using tools. This document is not applicable to welding current return clamps for underwater welding and plasma cutting.
This document specifies safety and performance requirements of welding current return clamps. This document does not specify requirements for welding cables. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition, published in 2011, and constitutes a technical revision.
The significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition are the following:
- Modified the title from "Welding clamp" to "Welding current return clamp" and updated the term through the document.
- Updated all values of test current in Table 1 corrected to 40 °C.
- Updated the reference to EN 50565-1:2014, Electric cables - Guide to use for cables with a rated voltage not exceeding 450/750 V (U0/U) – Part 1: General guidance
This part of IEC 60974 is to be used in conjunction with IEC 60974-1.

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This document establishes a European grouping system for materials for welding purposes, classified in accordance with the grouping system of ISO/TR 15608. It is also applicable for other purposes such as heat treatment, forming and non-destructive testing. This document covers grouping systems for the following standardized materials: a) steel; b) aluminium and its alloys; c) copper and its alloys; d) cast irons; e) nickel and nickel alloys. For materials that are not assigned to a group in this document, the criteria of ISO/TR 15608 apply.

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This document defines standard quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials both in workshops and at field installation sites.

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This document defines elementary quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials both in workshops and at field installation sites.

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This document defines comprehensive quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials both in workshops and at field installation sites.

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ISO 10225:2013 specifies the gas letter code to be used for marking the equipment for gas welding, cutting and allied processes, when the full name of the gas cannot be used.

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ISO 22826:2005 specifies the requirements for hardness testing of transverse sections of narrow laser and electron beam welded joints in metallic materials. It covers Vickers and Knoop hardness tests in accordance with ISO 6507-1 and ISO 4545, respectively, with test forces of 0,098 N to just under 98 N (HV 0,01 to just under HV 10) for the Vickers hardness test and test forces up to and including 9,8 N (just under HK 1) for the Knoop hardness test.
It is applicable to welds made with or without filler wire. It may not be applicable to the testing of wider hybrid laser/arc welds.

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This document gives specifications for single- and double-conductor secondary connection cables used for resistance welding and allied processes. These specifications include requirements for electrical, mechanical and cooling characteristics of the cables and their test procedures.

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This document gives guidance on levels of imperfections in electron and laser beam welded joints in
aluminium, magnesium and their alloys and pure copper. Three levels are given in such a way as to
permit application for a wide range of welded fabrications. The levels refer to production quality and
not to the fitness-for-purpose of the product manufactured.
This document applies to electron and laser beam welding of:
— aluminium and its alloys;
— magnesium and its alloys;
— pure copper (e.g. Cu-ETP1 CW003A, Cu-ETP CW004A, Cu-FRHC CW005A, Cu-FRTP CW006A, Cu-OF1
CW007A, Cu-OF CW008A, Cu-OFE CW009A, Cu-PHC CW020A, Cu-HCP CW021A, Cu-PHCE CW022A,
Cu-DLP CW023A, Cu-DHP CW024A);
— all types of welds welded with or without additional filler wire;
— materials equal to or above 0,5 mm thickness for electron and laser beam welding.
When significant deviations from the joint geometries and dimensions stated in this document are
present in the welded product, it is necessary to evaluate to what extent the provisions of this document
can apply.
NOTE For circular welds, a lower quality level can be specified for the fade-out zone.
Metallurgical aspects, e.g. grain size, hardness, hydrogen embrittlement (pure copper) are not covered
by this document.
This document is directly applicable to visual examination of welds and does not include details of
recommended methods of detection or sizing by other non-destructive means. There are difficulties
in using these limits to establish appropriate criteria applicable to non-destructive testing methods,
such as ultrasonic, radiographic and penetrant testing, and they can need to be supplemented by
requirements for inspection, examination and testing.

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This document specifies three test methods for investigating brazeability. A spreading test shows testing method with measurement of the spread area of the filler metals. A T-joint test describes a scheme to construct a T-shape design by the test pieces and a testing method. A varying gap test describes a test piece and a testing method for assessing the influence of the various parameters which can influence brazing during manufacture as a function of clearances.

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This document specifies requirements for resistance spot welding in the fabrication of assemblies of
aluminium sheet, extrusions (both work- and age-hardening alloys) and/or cast material comprising
two or three thicknesses of metal, where the maximum single (sheet) thickness of components to be
welded is within the range 0,6 mm to 6 mm.
This document is applicable to the welding of sheets or plates of dissimilar thickness where the
thickness ratio is less than or equal to 3:1. It applies to the welding of three thicknesses where the total
thickness is less than or equal to 9 mm.
Welding with the following types of machines is within the scope of this document:
— pedestal welding machines;
— gun welders;
— automatic welding equipment where the components are fed by robots or automatic feeding
equipment;
— multi-welders;
— robotic welders.
Information on appropriate welding equipment is given in Annex A and on spot welding conditions in
Annex B. The latter are for guidance only and can require modification depending on service conditions
of the fabrication, type of welding equipment, characteristics of the secondary circuit, electrode
material and geometry.
The welding of coated material, e.g. zinc-coated or anodized material, is outside the scope of this
document.

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This document specifies the requirements for the test methods for joint of micro-joining of 2G HTS to fulfil the requirements of ISO 17279-1 and ISO 17279-2. This document specifies test methods for determining the capability of joints for the production of the specified quality. It defines specific test requirements, but does not assign those requirements to any specific product group.

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ISO 20168:2016 specifies the dimensions and tolerances for electrode holders and of spot welding electrode caps, where a locking taper is used.

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This document specifies the requirements for the qualification of welding personnel for friction stir spot welding (FSSW) of aluminium.
In this document, the term "aluminium" refers to aluminium and its alloys.
This document does not apply to personnel exclusively performing loading or unloading of the automatic welding unit.

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Specifies the dimensions and tolerances of resistance spot welding electrode adaptors where the fixing element for the cap is a female taper (male electrode cap, see ISO 5830) and for which the electrode taper fits conform to ISO 1089. Covers also designation, material and marking.

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This document specifies the dimensions, the method of sampling, the preparation of the test specimens and the conditions for performing the tensile test in order to determine the short term tensile welding factor.
A tensile test may be used in conjunction with other tests (e.g. bend, tensile creep, macro) to assess the performance of welded assemblies, made from thermoplastics materials.
The test is applicable to welded assemblies made from thermoplastics materials filled or unfilled, but not reinforced, irrespective of the welding process used.

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This document specifies a method to determine the capability of a manufacturer to use friction stir spot welding (FSSW) for production of products of the specified quality.
It specifies quality requirements, but does not assign those requirements to any specific product group.
In this document, the term "aluminium" refers to aluminium and its alloys.

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This part of ISO 15616 provides minimum requirements for acceptance testing, using practical test methods, for CO2-laser beam machines for high quality welding and cutting in two dimensions (2-D), having a fixed workpiece on the platen and moving optics.
This part of ISO 15616 is not applicable to CO2-laser beam machines which use an articulated robot, nor does it apply to work stations, such as a welding positioner, fixed board cutter, etc.
This part of ISO 15616 does not cover hazard protection devices, such as those for discharging chips and particles generated during welding and cutting.

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This International Standard specifies the dimensions and tolerances for male electrode caps for resistance spot welding when a female taper (see IS0 1089) is used to fix the electrode adaptor (see IS0 5829).
It only applies to electrode caps for which the electrode force Fmsx, given for the diameter dl, does not exceed 4,O kN.

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This document provides the requirements for the tests made on welded thermoplastics semi-finished products.
The selection of the appropriate test method(s) should be made in accordance with the particular type and application of welded product.
The test results depend on the conditions of manufacture for the test specimen and on the test conditions. They can therefore only be related to the behaviour of the product or can only be used for designing a structure, if the test conditions can be related to the service conditions.

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This document specifies the design requirements and provides design guidelines for friction stir spot welding.
In this document, the term "aluminium" refers to aluminium and its alloys.

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ISO 10656:2016 specifies additional requirements to those given in ISO 5826 for single-phase transformers used in AC welding. It is intended to be used in conjunction with ISO 5826, whose requirements it amends.

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