This International Standard describes the quantitative liquid chromatographic determination of specific sugars (galactose, glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, and maltose) in various milk and milk products, applying arabinose or fucose as internal standards. The method is applicable for the following different dairy matrices: milk, milk powder, chees, whey powder, infant formula, dessert and yogurt. Soy containing dairy products are excluded. The determination of the lactose content in low lactose milk products is excluded.
A sophisticated high performance anion exchange chromatographic method in combination with
pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-AD) is applied. With this method the following 13 different
mono- and disaccharides can be separated: fucose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, lactulose, maltose, melobiose, trehalose, platinose (maltulose) and maltotriose.

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This document gives guidelines for the establishment of a conversion relationship between the results of an alternative method and an anchor method, and its verification for the quantitative determination of the microbiological quality of milk. NOTE The conversion relationship can be used a) to convert results from an alternative method to the anchor basis or b) to convert results/limits, expressed on an anchor basis, to results in units of an alternative method.

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This document specifies the quantitative liquid chromatographic determination of specific sugars (galactose, glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose and maltose) in various milk and milk products, applying arabinose as an internal standard. The method is applicable to the following dairy matrices: milk, sweetened condensed milk, milk powder, cheese, whey powder, infant formula, milk dessert and yoghurt. The method does not apply to dairy products containing soy or to the determination of the lactose content in low-lactose milk products at levels below 1 mg/g. A high performance anion exchange chromatography method in combination with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) method is applied[5][3][4]. With this method, thirteen different monosaccharides, disaccharides and trisaccharides can be separated: fucose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, lactulose, maltose, melibiose, trehalose, isomaltulose and maltotriose. The method is applicable to labelling for the six most important sugars that can be present by nature or by addition in milk and milk products. The method does not apply to sugar contents less than 0,1 %.

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This document gives guidelines for the use of near infrared (NIR) spectrometry in the analysis of milk and milk products in liquid, semi-solid or solid form. Depending on the sample form and application, different instrument setups for transmittance, diffuse reflectance or transflectance can be applied.

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This document specifies a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC?MS/MS) method for the quantification of the inhibitory substance, nitrofurazone, in milk and milk products. The method has been validated for measuring trace levels of intact nitrofurazone to levels down to 1 ng/g in fluid milk and powdered dairy products on a whole product (i.e. powder) basis. While the method is expected to apply to other dairy matrices, additional validation will be required to demonstrate this.

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This document specifies rules for the preparation of samples of milk and milk products and their
suspensions for microbiological examination when the samples require a different preparation from
the general methods specified in ISO 6887-1.
This document excludes the preparation of samples for both enumeration and detection test methods
where preparation details are specified in the relevant International Standards.
This document is intended to be used in conjunction with ISO 6887-1.
This document is applicable to:
a) milk and liquid milk products;
b) dehydrated milk products;
c) cheese and cheese products;
d) casein and caseinates;
e) butter;
f) milk-based ice-cream;
g) milk-based custard, desserts and sweet cream;
h) fermented milks, yogurt, probiotics milk products and sour cream;
i) dehydrated milk-based infant foods, with or without probiotics.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the whey to casein protein ratio, ranging from 20:80 to 80:20 in cow milk-based infant formula powders. This method does not apply to the analysis of infant formulas containing hydrolysed protein or proteins from other sources (e.g. plants or milk from other mammals).

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ISO 19662 | IDF 238:2018 specifies a method, the acido-butyrometric or "Gerber", for determining the fat content of milk. It is applicable to whole milk and partially skimmed milk. It is also applicable to milk containing authorized preservatives (potassium dichromate, bronopol). It does not apply to formalin milk, nor to milks that have undergone a homogenisation treatment.

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ISO/TS 19046-2 | IDF/RM 233-2:2017 specifies a method for the determination of propionic acid level in cheese, using ion exchange chromatography.

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ISO/TS 19046-1| IDF/RM 233-1:2017 specifies a method for the determination of propionic acid level in cheese, using gas chromatography.

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ISO 22964:2017 specifies a horizontal method for the detection of Cronobacter spp.
Subject to the limitations discussed in the introduction, this document is applicable to
- food products and ingredients intended for human consumption and the feeding of animals, and
- environmental samples in the area of food production and food handling.

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ISO 22964:2017 specifies a horizontal method for the detection of Cronobacter spp. Subject to the limitations discussed in the introduction, this document is applicable to - food products and ingredients intended for human consumption and the feeding of animals, and - environmental samples in the area of food production and food handling.

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ISO 27105:2016 specifies a method for the quantitative determination of hen's egg white lysozyme content in milk and cheese. The method is suitable for measuring low levels of hen's egg white lysozyme with a quantification limit of 10 mg/kg.

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This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of the water content of lactose by Karl Fischer (KF) titration.

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ISO 15163:2012 specifies a reference method for the determination of the amounts of chymosin and bovine pepsin present in a test sample of calf rennet and adult bovine rennet. In addition, it can be used for mixtures of calf/bovine rennet with fermentation-produced bovine chymosin (FPC).

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ISO/TS 17193¦IDF/RM 208:2011 specifies a photometric method for the determination of the lactoperoxidase activity in milk in amounts exceeding 50 U/l.

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ISO 13082:2011 specifies a method for the determination of the lipase activity. It is intended for the preparation of pregastric lipase and rennet paste, both of animal origin.

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1.1 This International Standard specifies sampling plans for the inspection by attributes of milk and milk products. It is intended to be used to choose a sample size for any situation where it is required to measure the conformity to a specification of a lot of a dairy product by examination of a representative sample.
1.2 This International Standard is applicable to the sampling of all milk products submitted in discrete lots, irrespective of whether the lots are from the same production. The acceptance or otherwise of any lot is a matter for the parties to a contract and is outside the scope of this International Standard.
1.3 This International Standard is intended to be used in all cases where attribute sampling plans are required for a dairy product, except that if specific compositional standards, specifications or contracts include different sampling schemes, those schemes are to be used.
1.4 This International Standard is not applicable to sampling for microbiological defects, unless otherwise agreed by the interested parties.
NOTE Methods of sampling for milk and milk products are given in ISO 707.

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ISO/TS 15495|IDF/RM 230 gives guidance for the quantitative determination of melamine and cyanuric acid content in milk, powdered milk products, and infant formulae by electrospray ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

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ISO 10932|IDF 223:2010 specifies a method for determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of a series of antibiotics applicable to bifidobacteria and non-enterococcal lactic acid bacteria (LAB). ISO 10932|IDF 223:2010 recommends the broth microdilution method as the standard method.

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ISO 11813|IDF 156:2010 specifies a flame atomic absorption spectrometric method for the determination of the zinc content of milk and milk products. The method has been validated for zinc contents of between 25 mg/kg and 70 mg/kg (dry mass) in milk and milk products.

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ISO 6732|IDF 103:2010 specifies a spectrometric reference method for the determination of the iron content of milk and milk products. This method is applicable to: milk, skimmed milk, whey and buttermilk; plain yogurt and skimmed yogurt; evaporated milk and sweetened condensed milk; dried whole and skimmed milk, dried whey and dried buttermilk; cream and butter; anhydrous butterfat, butteroil, butterfat and ghee; ice-cream; cheese of various ages, and processed cheese; caseins, caseinates and coprecipitates.

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ISO 29981|IDF 220:2010 specifies a method for the selective enumeration of presumptive bifidobacteria in milk products by using a colony count technique at 37 °C under anaerobic conditions. The method is applicable to milk products such as fermented and non-fermented milks, milk powders, infant formulae, and starter cultures where these microorganisms are present and viable, and in combination with other lactic acid bacteria. Bifidobacteria used in milk products usually belong to the species: Bifidobacterium adolescentis; B. animalis subsp. animalis; B. animalis subsp. lactis; B. bifidum; B. breve; B. infantis; B. longum.

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ISO 3890-1|IDF 75-1:2009 describes general considerations and specifies extraction methods for the determination of residues of organochlorine pesticides in milk and milk products. A method for high-fat products is specified in an annex. Guidance is given on the conduct of analyses in the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in another annex. The methods are applicable to: alpha-HCH; beta-HCH; gamma-HCH; aldrin/dieldrin; heptachlor and heptachlorepoxide; isomers of DDT, DDE, TDE; chlordane and oxychlordane; and endrin. Certain methods are applicable to delta-ketoendrin and HCB.

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ISO 3890-2|IDF 75-2:2009 specifies test methods for the purification of the crude extracts obtained by the general methods given in ISO 3890-1|IDF 75-1. It also gives recommended methods for the determination of the residues of organochlorine compounds in milk and milk products, together with confirmatory tests and clean-up procedures.

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ISO 11870|IDF 152:2009 gives guidance on: a) existing standardized methods (both reference and butyrometric) for the determination of fat in various milk products; b) the principles underlying any acid-butyrometric analysis and the main operating requirements; c) a validation procedure for a butyrometric method in relation to the relevant reference method.

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ISO/TS 11059|IDF/RM 225:2009 describes a method for the enumeration of Pseudomonas spp. in milk and milk products. The method allows the isolation of all pigmented and non-pigmented psychrophilic Pseudomonas spp. ISO/TS 11059|IDF/RM 225:2009 is also applicable to dairy samples.

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ISO 26323|IDF 213:2009 specifies a method for the measurement of the acidification activity of lactic acid bacteria by continuous measurement of pH. The method is applicable to dairy starter cultures where these characteristic microorganisms are present. Two types of standardized milk are specified in the procedure: boiled milk with 9,5 % mass fraction dry matter (B-milk 9,5); and autoclaved milk with 9,5 % mass fraction dry matter (A-milk 9,5). It is possible that heat treatment of B-milk 9,5 does not inactivate all enzymes that are present, which can affect the activity of some cultures. In that case, cultures are tested with A-milk 9,5 in which all enzymes have been inactivated.

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ISO 22935-1¦IDF 99-1:2009 gives general guidance for the recruitment, selection, training, and monitoring of assessors for sensory analysis of milk and milk products. It specifies criteria for the selection, and procedures for the training and monitoring, of selected assessors and expert sensory assessors for milk and milk products. It supplements the information given in ISO 8586-1 and parts of ISO 8586-2 that deal with expert sensory assessors.

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ISO 22935-2|IDF 99-2:2009 specifies recommended methods for the sensory evaluation of specific milk and milk products. It specifies criteria for the sampling and preparation of samples and the assessment of the samples. ISO 22935-2|IDF 99-2:2009 is suitable for application in conjunction with the sensory methodologies outlined in ISO 22935-1|IDF 99-1 and other ISO or IDF sensory methodologies for specific situations and products.

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ISO 22935-3¦IDF 99-3:2009 gives guidance on a general method for evaluation of compliance with product specifications for sensory properties based on sensory scoring and the use of a common nomenclature of terms. The method is especially applicable in process and quality control performed regularly on a larger number of samples and/or with some time pressure and/or with a limited number of expert assessors available. The results from the method may be part of product classification systems for domestic and international trade. Classification systems are not covered by ISO 22935-3¦IDF 99-3:2009.

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This International Standard gives guidance on methods of sampling milk and milk products for microbiological, chemical, physical and sensory analysis, except for (semi)automated sampling.

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ISO 7208|IDF 22:2008 specifies the reference method for the determination of the fat content of liquid skimmed milk, whey and buttermilk. It is a particularly accurate gravimetric method especially for the purpose of establishing the operating efficiency of cream separators.
ISO 7208|IDF 22:2008 also specifies the reference method for establishing correction tables for procedures with skimmed milk butyrometers.

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This Standard specifies a method for the determination of nitate and nitrite contents in milk and milk products using enzymatic reduction and molecular absorption spectrometry after Griess reaction (preceded by enzymatic reduction). The method is, in particular, applicable to whole, partly skimmed, skimmed and dried milk, hard, semi-hard and soft cheeses, processed cheese, whey cheese, caseins, caseinates, dried whey and milk protein concentrates. The method can be used at contents corresponding to a measured concentration in the sample solution (with blank subtracted) of more than 0,2 mg/l.

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ISO 7208|IDF 22:2008 specifies the reference method for the determination of the fat content of liquid skimmed milk, whey and buttermilk. It is a particularly accurate gravimetric method especially for the purpose of establishing the operating efficiency of cream separators. ISO 7208|IDF 22:2008 also specifies the reference method for establishing correction tables for procedures with skimmed milk butyrometers.

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ISO 20541|IDF 197:2008 specifies a method for the determination of the nitrate content of milk and milk products by molecular-absorption spectrometry after Griess reaction (preceded by enzymatic reduction).
The method is, in particular, applicable to whole, partly skimmed, skimmed and dried milk, hard, semi-hard and soft cheeses, processed cheese, whey cheese, caseins, caseinates, dried whey and milk protein concentrates.
The method can be used at contents corresponding to a measured concentration in the sample solution (with blank subtracted) of more than 0,2 mg/l.

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ISO 20541|IDF 197:2008 specifies a method for the determination of the nitrate content of milk and milk products by molecular-absorption spectrometry after Griess reaction (preceded by enzymatic reduction). The method is, in particular, applicable to whole, partly skimmed, skimmed and dried milk, hard, semi-hard and soft cheeses, processed cheese, whey cheese, caseins, caseinates, dried whey and milk protein concentrates. The method can be used at contents corresponding to a measured concentration in the sample solution (with blank subtracted) of more than 0,2 mg/l.

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ISO 707|IDF 50:2008 gives guidance on methods of sampling milk and milk products for microbiological, chemical, physical and sensory analysis, except for (semi)automated sampling.

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ISO 707|IDF 50:2008 gives guidance on methods of sampling milk and milk products for microbiological, chemical, physical and sensory analysis, except for (semi)automated sampling.

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ISO 8260|IDF 130:2008 specifies a method for the determination of the contents of individual organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in milk, evaporated milk, sweetened condensed milk, powdered milk products, butter and butterfat, cheese and other milk products. The method is capable of determining low levels of specific OCPs down to 5 µg of OCP per kilogram of fat and levels of specific PCBs down to 2,5 µg of PCB per kilogram of fat, using capillary gas-liquid chromatography with electron-capture detection (GLC‑ECD).

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ISO 9231|IDF 139:2008 specifies a method for the determination of the benzoic and sorbic acid contents in milk and milk products. The method is applicable to milk, dried milk, yogurt and other fermented milks, and cheese and processed cheese, and is suitable for measuring the contents of both compounds at levels of more than 5 mg/kg.

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ISO 22662|IDF 198:2007 specifies the reference method for the determination of lactose content of raw milk, heat-treated milks, dried milk and raw and pasteurized cream. The method is not applicable to fermented milks and milks to which oligosaccharides have been added.

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This document gives guidelines for the establishment of a conversion relationship between the results
of an alternative method and an anchor method, and its verification for the quantitative determination
of the microbiological quality of milk.
NOTE The conversion relationship can be used a) to convert results from an alternative method to the anchor
basis or b) to convert results/limits, expressed on an anchor basis, to results in units of an alternative method.

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This International Standard describes the quantitative liquid chromatographic determination of specific sugars (galactose, glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, and maltose) in various milk and milk products, applying arabinose or fucose as internal standards. The method is applicable for the following different dairy matrices: milk, milk powder, chees, whey powder, infant formula, dessert and yogurt. Soy containing dairy products are excluded. The determination of the lactose content in low lactose milk products is excluded.
A sophisticated high performance anion exchange chromatographic method in combination with
pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-AD) is applied. With this method the following 13 different
mono- and disaccharides can be separated: fucose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, lactulose, maltose, melobiose, trehalose, platinose (maltulose) and maltotriose.

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ISO 3889|IDF 219:2006 specifies the characteristics of Mojonnier-type fat extraction flasks for use in gravimetric methods for the determination of fat in milk and milk products. The flasks are designed to enable a supernatant solvent layer to be decanted almost completely from an underlying aqueous layer.

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ISO/TS 26884|IDF/RM 215:2006 specifies a microbiological inhibitor test for the detection of a broad variety of antimicrobials in milk and milk products. The method is applicable to raw milk, heat-treated milk and reconstituted dried milk.

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ISO/TS 6733|IDF/RM 133:2006 describes a method for the quantitative determination of the total lead content in milk and milk products.

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ISO 23058|IDF 199:2006 specifies a method for the determination of the total milk-clotting activity of an ovine or caprine rennet, including rennet paste, containing only chymosin and pepsin as the active coagulating enzymes on a standard milk substrate prepared using a calcium chloride solution of 0,5 g per litre (pH approx. 6,5).

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